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144 results found.
Term Pronounciation Definition
devilfish see  OCTOPUS
devil's food A dark, dense baked chocolate item (such as a cake or cookie). On the opposite end of the spectrum is the airy, white ANGEL FOOD CAKE.
dab Any of several varieties of FLOUNDER, the dab is a small FLATFISH with a sweet, lean, firm flesh. It can be prepared in any manner suitable for flounder. See also  FISH; PLAICE.
dacquoise [da-KWAHZ] A dessert of disc-shaped, nut-flavored MERINGUES stacked and filled with sweetened whipped cream or BUTTERCREAM. It's served chilled, often with fruit. See also  MARJOLAINE.
Dagwood sandwich Named after Dagwood Bumstead, a character in the "Blondie" comic strip, this extremely thick sandwich is piled high with a variety of meats, cheeses, condiments and lettuce.
daikon [DI-kuhn, DI-kon] From the Japanese words dai  (large) and kon  (root), this vegetable is in fact a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavor. The daikon's flesh is crisp, juicy and white, while the skin can be either creamy white or black. It can range from 6 to 15 inches in length with an average diameter of 2 to 3 inches. Some exceptional daikon are as fat as a football. Choose those that are firm and unwrinkled. Refrigerate, wrapped in a plastic bag, up to a week. Daikon radishes are used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of ways, such as in a STIR-FRY.
daiquiri [DAK-uh-ree] A cocktail made with rum, lime juice and sugar. Some daiquiris are made with fruit, the mixture being pureed in a blender. Frozen daiquiris are made either with crushed ice or frozen fruit chunks, all processed until smooth in a blender.
daizu [DI-zoo] Japanese term for "dried SOYBEANS."
dal; dhal, dhall [DAHL] A spicy dish made with lentils (or other PULSES), tomatoes, onions and various seasonings. Dal  is often pureed and served with curried dishes. In India, the term "dal" refers to any of almost 60 varieties of dried pulses, including peas, mung beans and lentils.
damson plum This small, oval-shaped plum has an indigo skin and yellow-green flesh. Because the damson is extremely tart, it makes excellent pies and jams. See also  PLUM.
Danablu cheese [DAN-uh-bloo] Also called Danish blue  cheese , this rich cow's-milk cheese is milder and less complex than ROQUEFORT, but has a zest all its own. Known as one of the world's best blues, the versatile, semisoft Danablu can be sliced, spread and crumbled with equal ease. It's excellent with fruit, dark breads and red wines. See also  BLUE CHEESE; CHEESE.
dancy orange see  MANDARIN ORANGE
dandelion greens [DAN-dl-i-uhn] The name dandelion comes from the French dent de lion , meaning "lion's tooth," a reference to the jagged-edged leaves of this noteworthy weed that grows both wild and cultivated. The bright green leaves have a slightly bitter, tangy flavor that adds interest to salads. They can also be cooked like spinach. The roots can be eaten as vegetables or roasted and ground to make root "coffee." Though they're available until winter in some states, the best, most tender dandelion greens are found in early spring, before the plant begins to flower. Look for bright-green, tender-crisp leaves; avoid those with yellowed or wilted tips. Refrigerate, tightly wrapped in a plastic bag, up to 5 days. Wash thoroughly before using. Dandelion greens are an excellent source of vitamin A, iron and calcium.
Danish blue cheese see  DANABLU CHEESE
Danish lobster see  PRAWN
Danish pastry This butter-rich pastry begins as a yeast dough that is rolled out, dotted with butter, then folded and rolled again several times, as for PUFF PASTRY. The dough may be lightly sweetened and is usually flavored with vanilla or cardamom. Baked Danish pastries (often referred to simply as "Danish") contain a variety of fillings including fruit, cream cheese, almond paste and spiced nuts.
Danziger Goldwasser see  GOLDWASSER
dariole [DEHR-ee-ohl, dah-ree-OHL] A French term referring to a small, cylindrical mold, as well as to the dessert baked in it. Classically, the dessert is made by lining the mold with puff pastry, filling it with an almond cream and baking until golden brown. Today there are also savory darioles, usually made with vegetable custards.
Darjeeling tea [dahr-JEE-ling] This strong, full-bodied black tea comes from India's province of Darjeeling, in the foothills of the Himalayas. Darjeeling tea leaves are grown at about 7,000 feet and are considered one of India's finest. See also  TEA.
dash A measuring term referring to a very small amount of seasoning added to food with a quick, downward stroke of the hand, such as "a dash of Tabasco." In general, a dash can be considered to be somewhere between 1/16 and a scant 1/8 teaspoon. See also  PINCH.
dasheen [da-SHEEN] see  TARO ROOT
dashi [DA-shee] Used extensively in Japanese cooking, dashi is a soup stock made with dried bonito tuna flakes (KATSUOBUSHI), KOMBU and water. Dashi-no-moto is this stock in instant form; it comes granulated, powdered and in a concentrate.
date With a history stretching back over 5,000 years, this venerable fruit grows in thick clusters on the giant date palm, native to the Middle East. The name is thought to come from the Greek daktulos , meaning "finger," after the shape of the fruit. Dates require a hot, dry climate and — besides Africa and the Middle East — flourish in California and Arizona. Most varieties range from 1 to 2 inches long and are oval in shape (though some are so chunky they're almost round). All dates have a single, long, narrow seed. The skin is thin and papery, the flesh cloyingly sweet. Dates are green when unripe and turn yellow, golden brown, black or mahogany red — depending on the variety — as they ripen. They're generally picked green and ripened off the tree before drying. When fresh, dates contain about 55 percent sugar, a percentage that increases dramatically as the date dries and the sugar becomes concentrated. Fresh dates are available in some specialty markets from late summer through midfall. Dried dates are available year-round and are sold packaged — pitted and unpitted — and in bulk, unpitted. Chopped dried dates are also available in packages. Choose plump, soft dates with a smooth, shiny skin. Avoid very shriveled dates or those with mold or sugar crystals on the skin. Store fresh dates, wrapped in a plastic bag, in the refrigerator up to 2 weeks. Dried dates can be stored, airtight, at room temperature in a cool, dry place for up to 6 months or up to a year in the refrigerator. Dates are a good source of protein and iron.
daube [DOHB] A classic French dish made with beef, red wine, vegetables and seasonings, all slowly braised for several hours. Every region in France has its own version of daube, sometimes made in a special, very deep, covered pottery casserole called a daubière .
dau miu [dow MEW] The Cantonese name for "pea shoots," the thin, delicately crisp tendrils (or vines), plus the uppermost leaves, of the green pea plant. Dau miu  has a flavor that's a cross between peas and spinach, with a soupçon of watercress. It's available in some Chinese markets in the spring. Refrigerate in a plastic bag for no more than a day or two — pea shoots are best used the day of purchase. Wash just before using. Dau miu  can be used fresh in salads, or added to a stir-fry at the last minute.
daun pandan [down pahn-DAHN] see  SCREWPINE LEAVES
dauphine [doh-FEEN] 1. Pommes dauphine  (dauphine potatoes) are CROQUETTES made by combining potato puree with CHOUX PASTRY (cream-puff pastry dough) and forming the mixture into balls, which are then rolled in bread crumbs and deep-fried. 2. Sole dauphine  is an elaborate preparation of deep-fried sole fillets garnished with mushrooms, crayfish, truffles and QUENELLES.
daurade [doh-RAHD] see  BREAM
decant To pour a liquid (typically wine) from its bottle to another container, usually a carafe or decanter. This is generally done to separate the wine from any sediment deposited in the bottom of the bottle during the aging process. Decanting is also done to allow a wine to "breathe," which thereby enhances its flavor.
decanter A narrow-necked, stoppered container — usually made of glass — used to hold wine, liqueur or other spirits.
decorating sugar see  SUGAR
deep-dish A term usually referring to a sweet or savory pie made either in a deep pie dish or shallow casserole, and having only a top crust.
deep-fat thermometer see  CANDY THERMOMETER
deep-fry To cook food in hot fat deep enough to completely cover the item being fried. The oil or fat used for deep-frying should have a high SMOKE POINT (the point to which it can be heated without smoking). For that reason, butter and margarine are not good candidates for frying; shortening, lard and most oils are. The temperature of the fat is all-important and can mean the difference between success and disaster. Fat at the right temperature will produce a crisp exterior and succulent interior. If it's not hot enough, food will absorb fat and be greasy; too hot, and it will burn. An average fat temperature for deep-frying is 375°F, but recipes differ according to the characteristics of each food. To avoid ruined food, a special deep-fat thermometer should be used. Most thermometers used for deep-fat are dual-purpose and also used as CANDY THERMOMETERS. Though special deep-fat fryers fitted with wire baskets are available, food can be deep-fried in any large, heavy pot spacious enough to fry it without crowding. To allow for bubbling up and splattering, the container should be filled no more than halfway full with oil. Fat or oil used for deep-frying may be reused. Let it cool, then strain it through CHEESECLOTH and funnel into a bottle or other tightly sealed container before refrigerating.
deer see  GAME ANIMALS
deglaze [dee-GLAYZ] After food (usually meat) has been sautéed and the food and excess fat removed from the pan, deglazing is done by heating a small amount of liquid in the pan and stirring to loosen browned bits of food on the bottom. The liquid used is most often wine or stock. The resultant mixture often becomes a base for a sauce to accompany the food cooked in the pan.
degrease [dee-GREES] Using a spoon to skim fat from the surface of a hot liquid, such as soup, stock or gravy. Another way to degrease is to chill the mixture until the fat becomes solid and can be easily lifted off the surface.
dehydrate [dee-HI-drayt] To remove the natural moisture from food by slowly drying it. Considered the original form of food preservation, dehydration prevents moisture spoilage such as mold or fermentation. Food can be dehydrated manually by placing thin slices on racks and allowing them to dry assisted only by sun or air. It can also be done with an electric dehydrator , which resembles a large three-sided toaster oven with anywhere from 5 to 10 wire-grid racks. The food placed on these racks dries with the aid of fan-circulated air. Dried foods are convenient to store and transport because of their greatly reduced volume and weight.
déjeuner [day-zhoo-NAY] The French word for "lunch."
Delaware grape Grown in the eastern United States, this small, pale red grape has a tender skin and juicy, sweet flesh. It's used as a table grape, as well as for some wines. See also  GRAPE.
delicata squash [dehl-ih-KAH-tah] Also called sweet potato squash , the delicata squash has a pale yellow skin with medium green striations. Inside, the succulent yellow flesh tastes like a cross between sweet potatoes and butternut squash. The oblong delicata can range from 5 to 9 inches in length and 1 1/2 to 3 inches in diameter. It's in season from late summer through late fall. Choose squash that are heavy for their size; avoid those with soft spots. Delicata squash can be stored up to 3 weeks at an average room temperature. As with other winter squash, the delicata is best baked or steamed. It's a good source of potassium, iron and vitamins A and C. See also  SQUASH.
Delmonico potatoes [dehl-MAHN-ih-koh] Named after the 19th-century New York restaurant of the same name whose owner-chef created this dish. It consists of cooked and creamed diced (or mashed) potatoes topped with grated cheese and buttered bread crumbs, then baked until golden brown.
Delmonico steak Another specialty made famous at Delmonico's (see  DELMONICO POTATOES), this tender, flavorful steak is a boneless beef cut from the SHORT LOIN. Depending on the region, butcher and so on. It's also referred to as a NEW YORK STEAK. The Delmonico steak can be broiled, grilled or fried. See also  BEEF.
Demerara sugar [dehm-uh-REHR-ah] see  SUGAR
demi-glace [DEHM-ee glahs] A rich BROWN SAUCE that begins with a basic espagnole sauce, which is combined with beef stock and MADEIRA or SHERRY and slowly cooked until it's reduced by half to a thick glaze that coats a spoon. This intense flavor is used as a base for many other sauces.
demi-sec [DEHM-ee sehk] A French term meaning "half dry" used to describe wine that is sweet (up to 5 percent sugar).
demitasse [DEHM-ee-tahss, DEHM-ee-tass] Literally French for "half cup," the term "demitasse" can refer to either a tiny coffee cup or the very strong black coffee served in the cup.
Denver sandwich [DER-bee, DAHR-bee-sheer] Also called a Western sandwich , this classic consists of an egg scrambled with chopped ham, onion and green pepper, sandwiched with two slices of bread and garnished with lettuce.
Derby cheese; Derbyshire cheese This mild, semifirm, cow's-milk cheese is similar to CHEDDAR. It has a pale, golden orange interior with a natural or waxed rind. Sage Derby is generously flavored with the herb, which also lends color interest. Both are good for snack or sandwich cheese. See also  CHEESE.
dessert wine Any of a wide variety of sweet wines — sometimes fortified with BRANDY, all of which are compatible with dessert. Some of the more popular dessert wines are LATE HARVEST RIESLING, MADEIRA, PORT, SAUTERNES, SHERRY and some sparkling wines, such as ASTI SPUMANTE.
devils on horseback 1. A "hot" version of ANGELS ON HORSEBACK (oysters wrapped in bacon strips), enlivened by the addition of red pepper or TABASCO sauce. 2. The British rendition of this appetizer consists of wine-poached prunes stuffed with a whole almond and mango chutney, then wrapped in bacon and broiled. Like the American version, these devils on horseback are also served on toast points.
Devon cream [DEHV-uhn] see  CLOTTED CREAM
Devonshire cheese [DEHV-uhn-sheer, DEHV-uhn-shuhr] A soft, creamy-rich cheese made by draining all the whey from Devonshire cream, also known as CLOTTED CREAM. See also  CHEESE.
Devonshire cream see  CLOTTED CREAM
dewberry [DOO-beh-ree] Any of several varieties of the trailing-vine form of the BLACKBERRY.
dextrose [DEHK-strohs] Also called corn sugar  and grape  sugar , dextrose is a naturally occurring form of GLUCOSE.
dhal see  DAL
diable sauce; à la diable [dee-AH-bl] 1. A basic brown sauce with the addition of wine, vinegar, shallots and red or black pepper. It's usually served with broiled meat or poultry. 2. À la diable  refers to a French method of preparing poultry by grilling a split bird, which is then sprinkled with bread crumbs and broiled until brown. The bird is served with diable sauce.
dice To cut food into tiny (about 1/8- to 1/4-inch) cubes.
dietary fiber see  FIBER, DIETARY
digestif [dee-zheh-STEEF] A French term for a spirited drink (such as BRANDY or COGNAC) taken after dining as an aid to digestion. The term digestif  is now widely used in English parlance as well.
digestive enzymes Natural food enzymes that, when taken with gassy foods, help reduce flatulence — sometimes even stopping it before it begins. Gas-producing foods like beans, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, grains and onions cause trouble because they contain hard- or impossible-to-digest complex sugars (see CARBOHYDRATE) that ferment in the large intestine. Digestive enzymes help break down these complex sugars into simple sugars that are more easily digestible. They generally come in tablet form and are commonly available in health-food stores. Some, like the popular Beano , also come in a liquid form and can be found in supermarkets and drugstores.
Dijon mustard [dee-ZHOHN] Hailing originally from Dijon, France, this pale, grayish-yellow mustard is known for its clean, sharp flavor, which can range from mild to hot. Dijon mustard is made from brown or black mustard seeds, white wine, unfermented grape juice (MUST) and various seasonings. The best-known maker of Dijon mustard is the house of Poupon, particularly famous in the United States for their Grey Poupon mustard. See also  MUSTARD.
dill Thought by 1st-century Romans to be a good luck symbol, dill has been around for thousands of years. This annual herb grows up to a height of about 3 feet and has feathery green leaves called dill weed, marketed in both fresh and dried forms. The distinctive flavor of fresh dill weed in no way translates to its dried form. Fresh dill does, however, quickly lose its fragrance during heating, so should be added toward the end of the cooking time. Dill weed is used to flavor many dishes such as salads, vegetables, meats and sauces. The tan, flat dill seed is actually the dried fruit of the herb. Heating brings out the flavor of dill seed, which is stronger and more pungent than that of the leaves. It's most often used in the United States for the brine in which dill pickles are cured. See also  HERBS; HERB AND SPICE CHART; A FIELD GUIDE TO HERBS
dilute [dih-LOOT] To reduce a mixture's strength by adding liquid (usually water).
dim sum; dem sum [DIHM SUHM] Cantonese for "heart's delight," dim sum  includes a variety of small, mouth-watering dishes such as steamed or fried dumplings, shrimp balls, steamed buns and Chinese pastries. Dim sum  — standard fare in tea houses — can be enjoyed any time of the day. Unlike most dining establishments, servers in a dim sum eatery do not take orders, per se. Instead, they walk among the tables with carts or trays of kitchen-fresh food. Diners simply point to the item they want, which is served on small plates or in baskets. Each item usually has a set price. At the end of the meal, the check is tallied by counting the dishes on the table. Some dim sum restaurants add the price of each dish to a check that remains on the table, clearing dishes as they are emptied.
diples A deep-fried, Greek pastry made from thin strips of sweet dough formed into bows or circles. Diples are usually coated with honey, cinnamon and nuts.
diplomat pudding This cold, molded dessert consists of alternating layers of LIQUEUR-soaked ladyfingers (or sponge cake), jam, chopped candied fruit and custard (sometimes combined with whipped cream). Diplomat pudding is usually garnished with whipped-cream rosettes and candied fruit.
diplomat sauce A fish stock-based VELOUTÉ SAUCE enriched with cream, brandy, LOBSTER BUTTER and truffles. It's generally served with fish and shellfish.
dirty rice A Cajun specialty of cooked rice combined with ground chicken or turkey livers and gizzards, onions, chicken broth, bacon drippings, green pepper and garlic. The name comes from the fact that the ground giblets give the rice a "dirty" look . . . but delicious flavor.
disjoint To separate meat at the joint, such as cutting the chicken leg from the thigh.
dissolve To incorporate a dry ingredient (such as sugar, salt, yeast or gelatin) into a liquid so thoroughly that no grains of the dry ingredient are evident, either by touch or sight.
distillation The process of separating the components in a liquid by heating it to the point of vaporization, then cooling the mixture so it condenses into a purified and/or concentrated form. In the making of liquor, this distilled product is called "neutral spirits" because it has little flavor, color or aroma.
distilled water Water from which all minerals and other impurities have been removed by the process of DISTILLATION.
ditali; ditalini [dih-TAH-lee, diht-ah-LEE-nee] Tiny, very short tubes of macaroni. See also  PASTA.
divinity [dih-VIHN-ih-tee] A fluffy yet creamy candy made with granulated sugar, corn syrup and stiffly beaten egg whites. Nuts, chocolate, coconut or various other flavorings are often added to the basic mixture. When brown sugar is substituted for granulated sugar, the candy is called seafoam.
Dobos torte [DOH-bohs, DOH-bohsh] Created by Austrian pastry chef Josef Dobos, this rich torte is made by stacking 9 extra-thin layers of GÉNOISE (or sponge cake) spread with chocolate buttercream. The top is covered with a hard caramel glaze.
dock see  SORREL
dogfish; spiny dogfish A name used for any of several smaller species of SHARK, although the reference isn't confined to one species. Dogfish genera include Squalus acanthias  (known as spur dog), Masterias  (smooth hound), Mustelus canis  (sand shark) and Scyliorhinus stellaris  (nursehound). The name refers to the small size and shape of the fish, the offspring of some of which are even referred to as "pups." Dogfish, which are found in the North and South Pacific, both sides of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean, have generally been considered TRASH FISH in the United States. That concept is gradually changing, however, and this moderately lean fish is gaining wider favor. Dogfish has a firm flesh and fairly strong flavor that lends itself to full-flavored sauces. It's best baked or fried and is, in fact, the fish widely used in Great Britain for FISH AND CHIPS. See also  FISH.
dolce [DOHL-chay, DOHL-chee] Italian for "sweet," referring culinarily to desserts, candy or other sweets.
Dolcelatte cheese [dol-chay-LAHT-tay] Also called Gorgonzola dolce , this soft, mild, blue-veined cheese can be served as either an appetizer or dessert. It's difficult to find but is sometimes available in specialty cheese shops. See also  CHEESE.
dollarfish see  BUTTERFISH
dollop [DOLL-uhp] A small glob of soft food, such as whipped cream or mashed potatoes. When referring to a liquid, dollop refers to a dash or "splash" of soda water, water and so on.
Dolly Varden see  CHAR
dolma [DOHL-mah, dohl-MAH-dehs] From the Arabic word for "something stuffed," referring to grape leaves, vegetables or fruits stuffed with a savory, well-seasoned filling. Among the most popular dolmades are grape leaves stuffed with a filling of ground lamb, rice, onion, currants, pine nuts and various seasonings. Other foods used as casings include squash, eggplant, sweet peppers, cabbage leaves, quinces and apples. Dolmades are usually braised or baked. They may be eaten hot, cold or at room temperature, and served as an appetizer or entrée.
dolphin; dolphinfish [DAHL-fihn] see  MAHI MAHI
donburi [dohn-boo-REE] 1. A Japanese dish of boiled riced topped with meat, fish, eggs and/or vegetables and broth. It can be served with spicy condiments. Sometimes this dish is called simply don  or don may be added as a suffix to indicate a donburi dish. For example, katsudon  is short for tonkatsu donburi , which is "pork cutlet on rice." Donburi is considered one of Japan's "fast foods" and there are chains of donburi restaurants specializing in quick meals. 2. The name of the large deep-footed bowl in which the previously mentioned dish is served.
dorado see  MAHI MAHI
dosage [doh-SAHJ] A mixture of sugar and spirits (often brandy) that is added to champagne and other sparkling wine immediately prior to final bottling. The percentage of sugar in the syrup determines the degree of sweetness in the final wine.
dot To scatter small bits (dots) of an ingredient (usually butter) over another food or mixture. Distributing bits of butter over the fruit in an apple pie, for example, allows the butter to melt evenly over the pie as it bakes.
double-acting baking powder see  BAKING POWDER
double boiler A double-pan arrangement whereby two pots are formed to fit together, with one sitting partway inside the other. A single lid fits both pans. The lower pot is used to hold simmering water, which gently heats the mixture in the upper pot. Double boilers are used to warm or cook heat-sensitive food such as custards, delicate sauces and chocolate.
double-cream cheeses; double crème Any of various cow's-milk cheeses that have been enriched with cream so that they contain a minimum of 60 percent milk fat. Triple-cream cheeses must have at least 75 percent milk fat. Both double- and triple-creams can be fresh or ripened. They share the distinction of being seductively soft and creamy in texture with a mild, slightly sweet flavor. BOURSIN is an example of a triple-cream cheese, whereas CREMA DANIA is a double-cream. Because of their natural sweetness, these cheeses are perfect when served with fruit for dessert. See also  CHEESE.
double Gloucester cheese see  GLOUCESTER CHEESE
dough [DOH] A mixture of flour, liquid and other ingredients (often including a leavening) that's stiff but pliable enough to work with the hands. Unlike a batter, dough is too stiff to pour.
doughnut; donut A small, typically ring-shaped pastry that is usually leavened with yeast or baking powder, and which can be baked but is generally fried. The traditional doughnut shape is formed by using a special doughnut cutter that cuts out the center hole in the dough. It can also be made with two biscuit cutters, large and small (for the hole). Fried doughnut holes are favorites with children. There are two main styles of doughnuts. Raised doughnuts are leavened with yeast and allowed to rise at least once before being fried. Besides the traditional ring-shape, raised doughnuts also come in squares and twists. Additionally, the dough is used to make oblong and round jelly-filled doughnuts — commonly called jelly doughnuts. Cake doughnuts receive their leavening power from baking powder and are chilled before frying to prevent the dough from absorbing too much oil in the process. The dough for cake doughnuts is often flavored with spices, orange or lemon zest or chocolate. Crullers are made from cake-doughnut dough. They're formed by twisting two (about 5-inch) strips of dough together before frying. Both types are usually either dusted with granulated sugar (cake doughnuts often with confectioners' sugar) or topped with a flavored glaze (such as chocolate or butterscotch). French doughnuts, though not as readily available as the other two types, are made with CHOUX PASTRY (cream-puff pastry dough). They're very tender and light.
doux [DOO] French for "sweet." On a CHAMPAGNE label, the term doux  means the wine is very sweet — over 5 percent sugar.
Dover sole see  SOLE
draft beer Beer served straight from the keg by means of a spigot. Unlike the bottled or canned varieties, draft beer hasn't been subjected to the PASTEURIZATION process. Also spelled draught .
dragée [dra-ZHAY] 1. Tiny, round, hard candies used for decorating cakes, cookies and other baked goods. Dragées come in a variety of sizes (from pinhead to 1/4-inch) and colors, including silver.
dragon's eye see  LONGAN
drain To pour off a liquid or fat from food, often with the use of a COLANDER. "Drain" can also mean to blot greasy food (such as bacon) on paper towels.
Drambuie [dram-BOO-ee] A golden, Scotch-based LIQUEUR sweetened with heather honey and flavored with herbs.
draught beer [draft] see  DRAFT BEER
draw 1. In cooking, to eviscerate; to remove the entrails, as from poultry or fish. 2. To CLARIFY a mixture, as in drawn butter.
drawn butter see  CLARIFIED BUTTER
dredge [DREHJ] To lightly coat food to be fried, as with flour, cornmeal or bread crumbs. This coating helps brown the food. Chicken, for example, might be dredged with flour before frying.
dress 1. To prepare game, fowl, fish and so forth for cooking by plucking, scaling, eviscerating, and so on. 2. To "dress a salad" simply means adding a DRESSING.
dressing 1. A sauce — usually cold — used to coat or top salads and some cold vegetable, fish and meat dishes. 2. A mixture used to stuff poultry, fish, meat and some vegetables. It can be cooked separately or in the food in which it is stuffed. Dressings (also called stuffings ) are usually well seasoned and based on bread crumbs or cubes — though rice, potatoes and other foods are also used.
dried beans see  BEANS
dried beef see  CHIPPED BEEF
dried fruit Fruit from which the majority of the moisture has been dehydrated. The final moisture content of dried fruit usually ranges from 15 to 25 percent. Drying fruit greatly concentrates both sweetness and flavor, and the taste is much changed, as from grape to raisin or from plum to prune. Fruit can be dried in the sun or by machine. Machine-drying usually takes no more than 24 hours. Sun-drying can take three to four times as long, causing additional loss of nutrients through heat and time. Vitamins A and C are the most susceptible to depletion during the drying process, but a wealth of other vitamins and minerals remains in great force. Before drying, fruits are often sprayed with sulfur dioxide gas, which helps preserve the fruit's natural color and nutrients. Though decried by some, clinical research has shown no negative effects from sulfur intake. Imported dried fruit, however, is fumigated with chemical pesticides, which have been proven toxic to humans. Dried fruit is available year-round and comes in five basic designations: extra fancy, fancy, extra choice, choice and standard. These grades are based on size, color, condition and moisture content. Most dried fruit can be stored at room temperature, tightly wrapped in a plastic bag, for up to a year. Though dried fruits can be stored longer and take less space, they contain 4 to 5 times the calories by weight of fresh fruit. Dried fruit can be used as is or reconstituted in water. It may be eaten out of hand or put to a variety of uses such as in baked goods, fruit compotes, stuffings, conserves and so on. See also  PRUNES; RAISINS.
drippings The melted fat and juices that gather in the bottom of a pan in which meat or other food is cooked. Drippings are used as a base for gravies and sauces and in which to cook other foods (such as YORKSHIRE PUDDING).
drizzle To slowly pour a liquid mixture in a very fine stream over food (such as a sweet glaze over cake or bread, or melted butter over food before baking).
drop cookie A cookie made by dropping spoonfuls of dough onto a baking sheet. See also  COOKIE.
drum Any of a large and diverse family of fish, so named for the odd drumming or deep croaking noise it makes, particularly during the mating season. Drum, also known as croaker , is a firm, lowfat fish found in temperate waters. Croakers, averaging 1 pound, are the small fry of the drum family and are usually sold whole. However, many drum can weigh up to 30 pounds and are generally sold in fillets and steaks. Drum can be baked, broiled or fried. Other members of the drum family include Atlantic and black croaker, black drum, California corbina, hardhead, kingfish, redfish (red drum), kingfish, spot, weakfish and white seabass. See also  FISH.
drupe fruit [DROOP] Any thin-skinned fruit with a succulent, soft flesh and hard stone or seed in the middle. APRICOTS, CHERRIES, PEACHES and PLUMS are all classified as drupe fruits.
dry adj.  A term used to describe a wine or other beverage that isn't sweet. In wines, dry is also referred to as SEC (see listing ). dry v.  see  DEHYDRATE
dry ice Dry ice is really crystallized carbon dioxide. It doesn't produce water when it melts and is generally used only for long-term refrigeration. Touching dry ice with bare hands can result in burns.
dry milk Milk from which almost all the moisture has been removed. Dry (also called powdered) milk is less expensive and easier to store than fresh milk but has a disadvantage in that it never tastes quite like the real thing. It comes in three basic forms — whole milk, nonfat milk and buttermilk. Because of its milk fat content, dry whole milk must be refrigerated. Nonfat dry milk is available in regular and instant forms; the former tastes slightly better, while the latter mixes more easily. Powdered buttermilk is simply desiccated buttermilk and is generally used for baking. Until opened, dry nonfat milk and buttermilk can be kept in a cool, dry place for up to 6 months. Refrigerating opened packages will help retain their freshness. A USDA "U.S. Extra Grade" shield on the label signifies that the product meets exacting government quality standards. Dry milks may or may not be fortified with vitamins A and D.
dry yeast see  YEAST
Dubarry, à la; du Barry [doo-BEHR-ee] Said to have been named after the Comtesse du Barry, mistress of Louis XV, this term denotes a dish using cauliflower — particularly cooked cauliflower served with cheese sauce. Crème Dubarry is a creamy cauliflower soup.
Dublin Bay prawn see  PRAWN
Dubonnet [doo-boh-NAY] A bittersweet, fortified wine-based APÉRITIF flavored with herbs and quinine. Dubonnet comes in red and white versions, the white being the drier (see  DRY) of the two.
duchess potatoes [DUCH-ihs] Cooked potatoes that are pureed with egg yolks and butter, then formed into small shapes or piped as a garnish and baked until golden brown. The term à la duchesse  refers to dishes garnished with duchess potatoes.
duck; duckling Any of many species of wild or domestic web-footed birds that live in or near water. As with so many things culinary, the Chinese are credited with being the first to raise ducks for food. Today's domestic ducks are all descendants of either of two species — the mallard or the muscovy duck. Comprising about half the domesticated ducks in the United States are the white-feathered, full-breasted Long Island ducks, known for their dark, succulent flesh. These direct descendents of the Peking duck (a variety of mallard) are all the progeny of three ducks and a drake brought from Peking on a clipper ship in 1873. Besides Long Island, the locations most widely known for the cultivation of superior ducks are Peking (now known as Beijing) and Rouen, France. Since most ducks are marketed while still quite young and tender, the words "duck" and "duckling" are interchangeable. Broilers and fryers are less than 8 weeks old, roasters no more than 16 weeks old. Domestic ducks can weigh between 3 and 5 1/2 pounds; the older ducks are generally larger. Fresh duck is available from late spring through early winter, but generally only in regions where ducks are raised. Almost 90 percent of ducks that reach market are frozen and available year-round. The government grades duck quality with USDA classifications A, B and C. The highest grade is A, and is usually what is found in markets. Grade B ducks are less meaty and well finished; grade C ducks are usually used for commercial purposes. The grade stamp can be found within a shield on the package wrapping or sometimes on a tag attached to the bird's wing. When buying fresh duck, choose one with a broad, fairly plump breast; the skin should be elastic, not saggy. For frozen birds, make sure the packaging is tight and unbroken. Fresh duck can be stored, loosely covered, in the coldest section of the refrigerator for 2 to 3 days. Remove any giblets from the body cavity and store separately. Frozen duck should be thawed in the refrigerator; it can take from 24 to 36 hours, depending on the size of the bird. Do not refreeze duck once it's been thawed. Duck can be prepared in a variety of manners including roasting, braising, broiling, and so on. Though higher in fat than other domestic birds, it is a good source of protein and iron. For information about wild duck , see  GAME BIRDS.
duck press A kitchen device used to extract the juices from a cooked duck carcass. This step is necessary for some gourmet duck recipes, specifically PRESSED DUCK.
duck sauce see  PLUM SAUCE
duff A STEAMED (OR BOILED) PUDDING made with flour, eggs, dried fruit and spices, and once widely popular in England and Scotland. The name is a Scottish dialectal variation of the word dough, which was apparently pronounced as rough .
dukka; dukkah [DOO-kah] An Egyptian spice blend comprising toasted nuts and seeds, the combination of which varies depending on the cook. Dukka usually has hazelnuts or chickpeas as a base, along with pepper as well as coriander, cumin and sesame seeds. The ingredients are ground together until the texture is that of a coarse powder. Dukka can be sprinkled over meats and vegetables, or used as a dip (preceeded by olive oil) for breads, fresh vegetables and so on. It's available in Middle Eastern markets.
dulce [DOOL-say] Spanish for "sweet," dulce  generally refers to an intensely sweet confection made with sugar and cream.
dulse [duhlss] Hailing from the British Isles, dulse is an edible, coarse-textured, red SEAWEED with a pungent, briny flavor. When dried, dulse remains supple though rubbery, which may be why some stalwart Irish use it like chewing tobacco. Dulse is primarily used in soups and condiments.
dumpling Savory dumplings are small or large mounds of dough that are usually dropped into a liquid mixture (such as soup or stew) and cooked until done. Some are stuffed with meat or cheese mixtures. Dessert dumplings most often consist of a fruit mixture encased in a sweet pastry dough and baked. They're usually served with a sauce. Some sweet dumplings are poached in a sweet sauce and served with cream.
Dundee cake [duhn-DEE, DUHN-dee] A classic Scottish fruitcake made with candied citron, orange and lemon peels, almonds and various spices. The top of a Dundee cake is traditionally covered completely with blanched whole almonds.
Dungeness crab [DUHN-juh-nehs] The pride of the Pacific coast, Dungeness crab can be found all the way from Alaska to Mexico. This large crab can range from 1 to almost 4 pounds; its pink flesh is succulent and sweet. See also  CRAB.
Dunlop cheese Hailing from Scotland, this cow's-milk cheese is quite mild when young, sharpening slightly as it ages. The ivory-colored Dunlop resembles a soft CHEDDAR in texture. It's delicious with breads and melts beautifully. See also  CHEESE.
durian [DOOR-ee-uhn] This larger-than-life fruit of the Malaysian tree can weigh up to 10 pounds, has a brownish-green, semihard shell covered with thick spikes, and is slightly larger than a football. To all but its Southeast Asian fans, the durian has a nauseating smell — a truth attested to by the fact that it's been outlawed by many airlines. The creamy, slightly sweet flesh, however, has an exquisitely rich, custardy texture. Fresh durian is not generally available in the United States, however, preserved dried durian can be found in Asian markets.
durum wheat [DOOR-uhm, DYOOR-uhm] see  WHEAT
dust 1. In cooking, this term refers to lightly coating a food with a powdery ingredient such as flour or confectioners' sugar. 2. A term used to describe inferior, coarsely crushed tea leaves.
Dutch oven A large pot or kettle, usually made of cast iron, with a tight-fitting lid so steam cannot readily escape. It's used for moist-cooking methods, such as braising and stewing. Dutch ovens are said to be of Pennsylvania Dutch heritage, dating back to the 1700s.
duxelles [dook-SEHL, deu-SEHL] A mixture of finely chopped mushrooms, shallots and herbs slowly cooked in butter until it forms a thick paste. It's used to flavor sauces, soups and other mixtures, as well as for a garnish.
devein [dee-VAYN] To remove the gray-black vein from the back of a shrimp. This can be done with the tip of a sharp knife or a special tool called a deveiner. On small and medium shrimp, this technique need be done only for cosmetic purposes. However, because the intestinal vein of large shrimp contains grit, it should always be removed.
devil To combine a food with various hot or spicy seasonings such as red pepper, mustard or TABASCO sauce, thereby creating a "deviled" dish.
© The Residential Chef 2019