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89 results found.
Term Pronounciation Definition
espagnole sauce [ehs-pah-NYOHL] see  BROWN SAUCE
Earl Grey tea This popular black tea was named for Charles Grey, the second earl in his line, who was also prime minister to King William IV in the early 19th century. An amalgamation of Indian and Sri Lankan teas, Earl Grey gets its elusive flavor from oil of BERGAMOT. The Earl is said to have been given the recipe by a Chinese mandarin with whom he was friends. See also  TEA.
Early Richmond cherry So named because it's the first sour cherry available in the late spring, the bright red Early Richmond is excellent for cooking purposes. See also  CHERRY.
earth almonds see  CHUFA
earthenware Clay bakeware that is glazed with a hard, nonporous coating. If high-fired, the earthenware is hard; lowfiring produces soft, fragile ware. Because of its inherent ability to release heat slowly, earthenware is favored for dishes requiring lengthy cooking such as baked beans and stews. Care must be taken to cool earthenware slowly and completely before washing in order to prevent the glaze from cracking. Once the glaze cracks, the exposed surfaces can adversely affect the flavor of foods cooked in the container.
earth nut see  PEANUT
earthnuts see  CHUFA
Eastern oyster see  ATLANTIC OYSTER
eau de vie [oh deuh VEE] French for "water of life," this term describes any colorless, potent BRANDY or other spirit distilled from fermented fruit juice. KIRSCH (made from cherries) and FRAMBOISE (from raspberries) are the two most popular eaux de vie . See also  AQUA VITAE; LIQUEUR.
Eccles cake [EHK-uhls] Named for the Lancashire, England, town of Eccles, this small domed confection has a filling of CURRANTS and other dried fruit mixed with sugar and butter and encased in a PUFF PASTRY shell.
edamame [eh-dah-MAH-meh] The Japanese name for fresh SOYBEANS. Edamame, which are usually bright to dark green, are available fresh in Asian markets from late spring to early fall. They're also available frozen.
Edam cheese [EE-duhm] Hailing from Holland, this mellow, savory cheese has a pale yellow interior with a red or yellow paraffin coating (the yellow is more common in Holland). It's made from part-skimmed milk (40 percent milk fat) and comes in spheres that can weigh anywhere from 1 to 4 pounds. Edam is second only to Gouda as Holland's most exported cheese. It's a great all-purpose cheese, especially good when served with dark beer. See also  CHEESE.
EDTA Abbreviation for ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, an ADDITIVE used in some processed foods to eliminate the possibility of rancidity caused by the transfer of trace metals during the manufacturing process. EDTA has a wide variety of nonculinary uses, including the treatment of lead poisoning.
eel The legends of eels have colored folklore throughout the ages. Some Philippine tribes say that eels are the souls of the dead, while in parts of Europe it's believed that rubbing the skin with eel oil will cause a person to see fairies. Whatever their origin or exterior application, eels are widely popular in Europe and Japan, where many consider their rich, sweet, firm meat a delicacy. This rather long, snakelike fish — of which there are both freshwater and saltwater varieties — has a smooth, scaleless skin. It spawns at sea and dies shortly thereafter. The European and American eel breed deep in Atlantic waters near Bermuda. The minuscule, transparent eel larvae drift on ocean currents for enormous distances — their journey to Europe taking about 3 years — until they reach coastal areas. There they transform into tiny, wormlike elvers  (baby eel) and begin wriggling up inland waterways and crossing boggy grounds to reach small ponds and streams. After about 10 years of living in this freshwater habitat, the eel begins its migration back to Atlantic waters where it spawns and dies. The conger eel , a scaleless, saltwater "monster" fish that can reach up to 10 feet long and weigh over 170 pounds, is a relative of the common eel. Fresh eels, depending on the region, are available year-round, the fall being the peak season. Those under 2 pounds will be more tender. Before cooking, the thick, tough skin and outer layer of fat must be removed — a task usually handled by the fish dealer. Fresh eel should be refrigerated and used within a day or two. It's excellent baked, stewed or grilled. Because conger eel meat is very tough, it is most often used in soups and stews. Eel is also available jellied in cans or smoked. Though considered a fatty fish, the eel is high in vitamins A and D, as well as being a good source of protein. See also  FISH.
egg see  EGGS
egg cream This favorite New York City soda fountain drink has been popular since the 1930s. Egg creams don't contain a speck of egg but are so named because of the froth (resembling beaten egg whites) that crowns the drink. They're made with a mixture of milk and CHOCOLATE SYRUP into which SELTZER WATER is spritzed, causing the mixture to foam enthusiastically.
egg foo yong [foo YUHNG] A Chinese-American dish made by combining eggs with various foods such as bean sprouts, water chestnuts, scallions, ham, chicken or pork. Small, pancake-size portions are poured into a skillet and fried until golden brown. Egg foo yong can also be made in one large round. It is sometimes topped with a sauce of chicken broth, soy sauce and various seasonings.
eggnog This chilled Christmas beverage consists of a homogeneous blend of milk or cream, beaten eggs, sugar, nutmeg and usually liquor of some kind. Rum was the spirit noted in early references to the drink, but brandy and whiskey are also common additions. Liquor-free eggnog has long been served to convalescents and growing children. Some eggnogs are made by separating the eggs and stiffly beating the whites before adding them to the milk mixture; this produces an airier brew. Commercial eggnog is sans liquor and must contain 1 percent egg-yolk solids by weight. It's available in cartons beginning around mid-October. Canned eggnog can be found year-round in some locations, though some think its flavor takes on a metallic quality.
egg piercer A kitchen tool with a sharp steel pin, usually spring-mounted, which pokes a tiny hole in the large end of an egg. This hole prevents the egg from cracking because the air inside (which expands during boiling) can gradually escape.
eggplant Because the eggplant is a member of the nightshade family, it's related to the potato and tomato. Though commonly thought of as a vegetable, eggplant is actually a fruit . . . specifically a berry. There are many varieties of this delicious food, ranging in color from rich purple to white, in length from 2 to 12 inches and in shape from oblong to round. In the United States, the most common eggplant is the large, cylindrical- or pear-shape variety with a smooth, glossy, dark purple skin. It's available year-round, with the peak season during August and September. Choose a firm, smooth-skinned eggplant heavy for its size; avoid those with soft or brown spots. Eggplants become bitter with age and are very perishable. They should be stored in a cool, dry place and used within a day or two of purchase. If longer storage is necessary, place the eggplant in the refrigerator vegetable drawer. When young, the skin of most eggplants is deliciously edible; older eggplants should be peeled. Since the flesh discolors rapidly, an eggplant should be cut just before using. Bitter, overripe fruit can benefit by the ancient method of salting both halves and weighting them for 20 minutes before rinsing; the salt helps eliminate some of the acrid taste. Eggplant can be prepared in a variety of ways including baking, broiling and frying. It does, however, have spongelike capacity to soak up oil so it should be well coated with a batter or crumb mixture to inhibit fat absorption. Many other varieties of this versatile fruit are now finding their way into some markets. The very narrow, straight Japanese or Asian eggplant ranges in color from solid purple to striated shades and has tender, slightly sweet flesh. The Italian or baby eggplant looks like a miniature version of the common large variety, but has a more delicate skin and flesh. The appearance of the egg-shaped white eggplant makes it clear how this fruit was named. It has a tougher skin, but firmer, smoother flesh. In general, these varieties can be cooked in many of the same methods as the large eggplant. They rarely require salting, however, and usually benefit from a short cooking time.
eggplant caviar A thick, pureed mixture of roasted eggplant, tomato, onion, olive oil and various seasonings. It's served cold or at room temperature as a dip or spread.
egg ring A round, bottomless, stainless steel ring, sometimes with a vertical handle, in which an egg can be poached or fried. The ring keeps the egg perfectly round during cooking. It's removed before the egg is served.
egg roll A small, stuffed Chinese pastry usually served as an appetizer. Paper-thin pastry wrappers are folded around a savory filling of minced or shredded vegetables and sometimes meat, then folded and rolled before being deep-fried. Egg roll skins (the pastry wrappers) are available in the refrigerator section of Asian markets and most supermarkets. Spring rolls, so named because they're traditionally served on the first day of the Chinese New Year (in early spring), are smaller, more delicate versions of the egg roll.
egg roll skins see  WON TON SKINS
eggs Legends about eggs have abounded throughout the eons. Early Phoenicians thought that a primeval egg split open to form heaven and earth; Egyptians believed that their god Ptah created the egg from the sun and the moon; and American Indians thought that the Great Spirit burst forth from a giant golden egg to create the world. In all of the early legends the chicken is never mentioned, making the answer to the question of which came first — the chicken or the egg — seem obvious. The most common egg used for food today is the hen's egg, though those from other fowl — including duck, goose and quail — are sold in many areas. Hens' eggs have long been bedeviled by their high cholesterol content (about 213 milligrams for a large egg), which is contained entirely in the yolk. Since the American Heart Association recommends that adults limit their cholesterol consumption to no more than 300 milligrams of cholesterol a day, strict cholesterol watchers generally either drastically reduce their egg consumption or eat the whites only. Most hens' eggs on the market today have been classified according to quality and size under USDA standards. In descending order, egg grades are AA, A and B, the classification being determined by both exterior and interior quality. The factors determining exterior quality include the soundness, cleanliness, shape and texture of the shell. Interior quality is judged by "candling," so named because in days gone by an egg was held up in front of a candle to see inside. Today, candling is more likely to be accomplished electrically, with the eggs moving and rotating on rollers over high-intensity lights. The interior quality is determined by the size of the air cell (the empty space between the white and shell at the large end of the egg — smaller in high-quality eggs), the proportion and density of the white, and whether or not the yolk is firm and free of defects. In high-quality eggs, both the white and yolk stand higher, and the white spreads less than in lower-grade eggs. Eggs come in the following sizes based on their minimum weight per dozen: jumbo (30 oz. per dozen), extra large (27 oz.), large (24 oz.), medium (21 oz.), small (18 oz.) and peewee (15 oz.). Large eggs are those on which most recipes are based. An eggshell's color — white or brown — is determined by the breed of hen that laid it and has nothing to do with either taste or nutritive value. The egg white is an excellent source of protein and riboflavin. Egg yolks contain all of the fat in an egg and are a good source of protein, iron, vitamins A and D, choline and phosphorus. The color of the yolk depends entirely on the hen's diet. Hens fed on alfalfa, grass and yellow corn lay eggs with lighter yolks than wheat-fed hens. CHALAZAE are the thick, cordlike strands of egg white attached to 2 sides of the yolk that serve to anchor it in the center of the egg. The more prominent the chalazae, the fresher the egg. Blood spots on egg yolks are the result of a natural occurrence, such as a blood vessel rupturing on the surface. They do not indicate that the egg is fertile, nor do they affect flavor. Contrary to popular belief, fertile eggs — expensive because of high production costs — are no more nutritious than nonfertile ones. They do contain a small amount of male hormone and do not keep as well as other eggs. Storing eggs: Eggs must always be refrigerated. When stored at room temperature, they lose more quality in 1 day than in a week in the refrigerator. Eggs should be stored in the carton in which they came; transferring them to the egg container in the refrigerator door exposes them to odors and damage. They should always be stored large-end-up and should never be placed near odoriferous foods (such as onions) because they easily absorb odors. The best flavor and cooking quality will be realized in eggs used within a week. They can, however, be refrigerated up to a month, providing the shells are intact. Leftover yolks can be covered with cold water and refrigerated, tightly covered, for up to 3 days. They can be frozen only with the addition of 1/8 teaspoon salt or 1 1/2 teaspoons sugar or corn syrup per 1/4 cup egg yolks. Tightly covered egg whites can be refrigerated up to 4 days. They can be frozen as is up to 6 months. An easy way to freeze whites is to place one in each section of an ice cube tray. Freeze, then pop the egg-white cubes out into a freezer-weight plastic bag. Both frozen egg yolks and whites should be thawed overnight in the refrigerator before being used. Hard-cooked eggs should be refrigerated no more than a week. Eggs are available in other forms including powdered and frozen (whole or separated). Commercially frozen egg products are generally pasteurized and some contain stabilizing ingredients. Another egg product available to consumers is table-ready pasteurized liquid eggs, which can be found in a supermarket's refrigerated section. This product mixes the white and yolks, then pasteurizes them at a heat level that kills any bacteria without cooking the eggs. Pasteurized eggs are sold in 8- and 16-ounce cartons (4 1/2 and 9 whole eggs respectively). They can be refrigerated unopened for up to 12 weeks from the pack date (see  OPEN DATING). The multitalented egg is delicious not only as a food in its own right but has numerous other uses as a LEAVENER in cakes, breads and soufflés; a base for dressings such as mayonnaise; a thickener in sauces and custards; a clarifying agent for stocks; and a coating for breaded or battered foods. See also  EGG SUBSTITUTES.
eggs Benedict A breakfast or brunch specialty consisting of two toasted English muffin halves, each topped with a slice of ham or Canadian bacon, a poached egg and a dollop of HOLLANDAISE SAUCE. The most popular legend of the dish's origin says that it originated at Manhattan's famous Delmonico's Restaurant when regular patrons, Mr. and Mrs. LeGrand Benedict, complained that there was nothing new on the lunch menu. Delmonico's maitre d' and Mrs. Benedict began discussing possibilities and eggs Benedict was the result.
egg scissors Used to remove the top of soft-cooked eggs, this circular gadget has a scissors-style handle. It's positioned over the top of the egg and, when the handle is operated, a ring of "teeth" or a ringed blade clips off the top third of the eggshell.
egg slicer A kitchen tool with a slatted, egg-shaped hollow on the bottom and a hinged top consisting of 10 fine steel wires. When the upper portion is brought down onto a hard-cooked egg sitting in the base, it cuts the egg into even slices.
eggs Sardou [sahr-DOO] Named for Victorien Sardou, a famous French dramatist, this specialty of Antoine's restaurant in New Orleans consists of poached eggs topped with artichoke hearts, ham, anchovies, truffles and HOLLANDAISE SAUCE.
egg substitutes A liquid sold in cartons, this product is usually a blend of egg whites, food starch, corn oil, skim-milk powder, TOFU, artificial coloring and a plethora of additives. It contains no cholesterol but each serving is almost as high in sodium as a real egg. Egg substitutes can be scrambled and also used in many baking and cooking recipes calling for whole eggs.
egg timer A tiny "hourglass" that holds just enough sand to run from top to bottom in 3 minutes, the time it takes to soft-boil an egg.
egg wash Egg yolk or egg white mixed with a small amount of water or milk. It's brushed over breads, pastry and other baked goods before baking to give them color and gloss.
Eiswein [ICE-vine] see  ICE WINE
Elberta peach [ehl-BER-tuh] A large FREESTONE peach with a sweet, succulent flesh and red-blushed, yellow skin. It's good both for eating out of hand and for cooking. See also  PEACH.
Elberta peach [ehl-BER-tuh] A large FREESTONE peach with a sweet, succulent flesh and red-blushed, yellow skin. It's good both for eating out of hand and for cooking. See also  PEACH.
Elbo cheese A particularly mild-flavored SAMSOE cheese with irregular, Swisslike holes. See also  CHEESE.
elbow pasta Any of a wide variety of short, curved tubular PASTAS, such as MACARONI.
elderberry The purple-black, tart fruit of the elder tree, elderberries can be eaten raw (though they are quite sour) but are better used to make jams, pies and homemade wine. The creamy white elderberry flowers can be added to salads or batter-dipped and fried like fritters.
election cake This rich, yeast-raised cake is replete with nuts, candied fruit and sherry-soaked raisins. It was created in the 18th century to celebrate election day.
elephant ear see  WOOD EAR
elver see  EEL
Emmentaler cheese; Emmental; Emmenthaler [EM-en-tahl-er] Switzerland's oldest and most important cheese, Emmentaler has a distinctively nutty-sweet, mellow flavor that makes it perfect for almost any use — from snacks to an après-dinner fruit-and-cheese plate. This cow's-milk cheese is light gold in color, with marble-size holes and a natural light brown rind. It was named for Switzerland's Emmental valley and is exported in giant wheels weighing from 150 to 220 pounds each. See also  CHEESE.
empanada [em-pah-NAH-dah, em-pah-NAH-thah] Empanar  is Spanish for "to bake in pastry," and these Mexican and Spanish specialties are usually single-serving turnovers with a pastry crust and savory meat-and-vegetable filling. They can also be filled with fruit and served as dessert. Empanadas range in size from the huge empanada gallega , large enough to feed an entire family, to empanaditas  — tiny, ravioli-size pastries.
emperor grape In season from November to May, the large emperor grape comes from California and has an elongated oval shape. The thin, pale red to purple-red skin covers a mild-flavored flesh with scattered seeds. See also  GRAPE.
emulsifier [eh-MUHL-suh-fi-er] Generally, any ingredient used to bind together normally noncombinative substances, such as oil and water. Egg yolks contain a natural emulsifier (LECITHIN) and are used to thicken and BIND sauces (such as HOLLANDAISE), as well to bind ingredients in baking. XANTHAN GUM is a commercial emulsifier used in numerous foods like salad dressings and dairy products. Some commercial emulsifiers also inhibit baked goods from going stale.
emulsion [ih-MUHL-shuhn] A mixture of one liquid with another with which it cannot normally combine smoothly — oil and water being the classic example. Emulsifying is done by slowly (sometimes drop-by-drop) adding one ingredient to another while at the same time mixing rapidly. This disperses and suspends minute droplets of one liquid throughout the other. Emulsified mixtures are usually thick and satiny in texture. Mayonnaise (an uncooked combination of oil, egg yolks and vinegar or lemon juice) and HOLLANDAISE SAUCE (a cooked mixture of butter, egg yolks and vinegar or lemon juice) are two of the best-known emulsions.
enamelware Cast-iron or steel pots and pans that have been completely coated with thin layers of brightly colored enamel. Enamelware is a good heat conductor, easy to clean and doesn't interact with food to impart off-flavors. Light-colored enameled surfaces do not brown food well; they will also discolor over a long period of use. Overheating enamelware may cause the surface to crack. Care must be taken not to use abrasives to clean enamel as it easily scratches.
enchilada [en-chuh-LAH-dah, en-chee-LAH-thah] This Mexican specialty is made by rolling a softened corn tortilla around a meat or cheese filling. It's served hot, usually topped with a tomato-based salsa and sprinkled with cheese.
en cocotte see  COCOTTE
en croûte see  CROÛTE
endive [EN-dyv, AHN-deev, ahn-DEEV] Endive is closely related to and often confused with its cousin, CHICORY. They're both part of the same botanical family, Cichorium.  There are three main varieties of endive: Belgian endive, curly endive and escarole. Belgian endive, also known as French endive  and witloof  (white leaf), is a small (about 6-inch-long), cigar-shaped head of cream-colored, tightly packed, slightly bitter leaves. It's grown in complete darkness to prevent it from turning green, using a labor-intensive growing technique known as BLANCHING. Belgian endive is available from September through May, with a peak season from November through April. Buy crisp, firmly packed heads with pale, yellow-green tips. Belgian endives become bitter when exposed to light. They should be refrigerated, wrapped in a paper towel inside a plastic bag, for no more than a day. They can be served cold as part of a salad, or cooked by braising or baking. Curly endive, often mistakenly called chicory  in the United States, grows in loose heads of lacy, green-rimmed outer leaves that curl at the tips. The off-white center leaves form a compact heart. The leaves of the curly endive have a prickly texture and slightly bitter taste. Escarole has broad, slightly curved, pale green leaves with a milder flavor than either Belgian or curly endive. Both curly endive and escarole are available year-round, with the peak season from June through October. They should be selected for their fresh, crisp texture; avoid heads with discoloration or insect damage. Store curly endive and escarole, tightly wrapped, in the refrigerator for up to 3 days. They're both used mainly in salads, but can also be briefly cooked and eaten as a vegetable or in soups.
English breakfast A large, hearty breakfast that can include fruit or juice, eggs, ham or other meat, fish, cereal, baked goods, jam and tea. Compare to CONTINENTAL BREAKFAST.
English breakfast tea A hearty blend of several of various black teas (usually ASSAM and CEYLON). English breakfast tea is more full-flavored and full-bodied than a single black tea. See also  TEA.
English Morello cherry see  MORELLO CHERRY
English muffin This round, rather flat (about 3 inches in diameter by 1 inch high) "muffin" is made from a soft yeast dough that, after being formed into rounds, is baked on a griddle. It can be made at home but is readily available commercially in an assortment of flavors including sourdough, whole wheat, raisin, cinnamon and cornmeal. English muffins are halved before toasting. In order to produce a surface with the proper peaks and craters (which adds to their crunchy texture and provides plentiful pockets for butter and jam), English muffins must be fork-split and gently pulled apart. Using a knife to cut them in half will not produce the desired result.
English mustard An extremely hot powdered mustard containing ground mustard seeds (both black or brown and yellow-white), wheat flour and turmeric. The most well-known brand of powdered mustard today is Colman's, named for its 19th-century British developer, Jeremiah Colman. See also  MUSTARD.
English pea This is the common garden pea , also known simply as green pea . But there's nothing common about its flavor, particularly during the peak months of March, April and May and again from August to November. The French are famous for their tiny, young green peas known as petits pois . Choose fresh peas that have plump, unblemished, bright green pods. The peas inside should be glossy, crunchy and sweet. Because peas begin the sugar-to-starch conversion process the moment they're picked, it's important to buy them as fresh as possible. Refrigerate peas in their pods in a plastic bag for no more than 2 to 3 days. Shell just before using. Both English peas and the French petits pois are available frozen and canned. Peas are a fair source of vitamins A and C, as well as niacin and iron. See also  PEA; LEGUME.
English sole Also called lemon sole  in the United States, this species of FLOUNDER is low in fat and finely textured. It ranges from 1/4 to 2 pounds and can be purchased whole or in fillets. It's often labeled simply as "fillet of SOLE." English sole can be prepared in a variety of ways including baking, broiling, poaching and sautéing. See also  FISH.
English walnut The United States (mainly California) is the world's leading producer of the English walnut (also called Persian walnut ). It's grown in several other countries including China, France, India, Iran, Turkey and Yugoslavia. The English walnut has a wrinkled, tan-colored shell that encloses two large, double-lobed halves. Its sweet flavor makes it a delicious choice for out-of-hand eating, as well as a popular addition for all manner of foods sweet and savory. English walnuts are used to produce walnut oil; they also come in candied and pickled forms. They're available prepackaged or in bulk. English walnuts are a potent source of Omega-3 oils (see  FATS AND OILS). See also  NUTS; WALNUT.
enoki; enokitake; enokidake mushrooms [en-oh-kee] The cultivated variety of these crisply delicate mushrooms comes in clumps of long, spaghettilike stems topped with tiny, snowy white caps. (In contrast, the wild form has orangy-brown, very shiny caps.) Enokitake have an appealingly crunchy texture and mild — almost fruity — taste, unlike the bosky flavor of most mushrooms. They're available fresh year-round (depending on the region) in Asian markets and some supermarkets. They can also be purchased canned. Choose fresh mushrooms that are firm and white. Refrigerate, wrapped in paper towel then a plastic bag, up to 5 days. Before using, they should be cut away from the mass at the base of the stems. Enokitake are particularly good raw in salads. They may also be used to garnish soups or other hot dishes. If used as part of a cooked dish, they should be added at the last minute, as heat tends to make them tough. These tiny mushrooms provide a good source of vitamin D, as well as small amounts of the B-complex vitamins. The enoki is also called snow puff mushroom, golden mushroom  and velvet stem . See also  MUSHROOMS.
enology [ee-NAHL-uh-jee] Also spelled oenology , this is the science or study of viniculture (making wines). One who studies the science is called an enologist (or oenologist). See also  ENOPHILE.
enophile [EE-nuh-file] Someone who enjoys wine, usually referring to a connoisseur. Also spelled oenophile . See also  ENOLOGY.
en papillote see  PAPILLOTE
enrich ; enriched 1. A term usually applied to flour that, after the milling has stripped it of the wheat germ and other nutritious elements, has niacin, riboflavin and thiamin added back into it. U.S. law requires that flours not containing wheat germ must have these nutrients replenished. 2. The term can also apply to enriching and thickening a sauce with the last-minute addition of an ingredient such as butter, cream or egg yolks.
ensalada [ahn-sah-LAH-dah] The Spanish word for "salad."
entrecôte [ahn-treh-KOHT] Literally meaning "between the ribs," this French term refers to a steak cut from between the ninth and eleventh ribs of beef. It's a very tender cut and is usually cooked by quickly broiling or sautéing.
entrée [AHN-tray] 1. In America, the term "entrée" refers to the main course of a meal. 2. In parts of Europe, it refers to the dish served between the fish and meat courses during formal dinners.
entremesas [ehn-treh-MAY-sehs] Spanish for "APPETIZERS."
entremets [AHN-truh-may] French for "between dishes," the word entremets  on a menu refers to desserts. At one time, this word was used to describe small side dishes served between principal courses or with the main course.
epazote [eh-pah-ZOH-teh] A pungent, wild herb whose strong flavor is, like that of fresh coriander, an acquired taste. It has flat, pointed leaves and is available dried (and infrequently fresh) in Latin markets. Also called Mexican tea  and wormseed , epazote is popular in many bean dishes because it's a carminative, which means it reduces gas. It's also used as a tea. See also  HERBS.
epicure [EHP-ih-kyoor] One who cultivates the knowledge and appreciation of fine food and wine.
escabèche [es-keh-BEHSH] Of Spanish origin, escabèche is a dish of poached or fried fish, covered with a spicy MARINADE and refrigerated for at least 24 hours. It's a popular dish in Spain and the Provençal region of France, and is usually served cold as an appetizer. Escovitch  is the Jamaican name for this dish.
escalope [eh-SKAL-ohp, eh-skah-LAWP] The French term for a very thin, usually flattened, slice of meat or fish. The tender escalope requires only a few seconds of sautéing on both sides. In the United States, this cut is known as "scallop."
escargot [ehs-kahr-GOH] The French word for "SNAIL."
escarole [EHS-kuh-rohl] see  ENDIVE
escovitch [ess-koh-VEETCH] see  ESCABÈCHE
espagnole, à l' [ah lehs-pahn-YOHL] A French term for foods prepared in the Spanish style, usually with tomatoes, onions, garlic and sweet peppers.
essences Concentrated, usually oily substances extracted from food such as fish, mint leaves or vegetables and used in small amounts to flavor various dishes. Like EXTRACTS, essences will keep indefinitely if stored in a cool dark place.
estate bottled A wine label term indicating that 100 percent of the grapes that went into that wine were grown in the winery's own vineyards, or from vineyards (in the same APPELLATION) controlled by the winery through a long-term lease. Furthermore, such wines must be vinified and bottled at that winery. The term château bottled  has a comparable meaning. Both refer to a wine that's considered to be of superior quality and character. European phrases similar to "estate bottled" are: the French Mis en Bouteille au Domaine, Mis au Domaine, Mis en Bouteille à la Propriété  and Mis en Bouteille au Château ; the Italian Imbottigliato all'Origine;  and the German Gutsabfüllung  and Erzeugerabfüllung .
ethyl alcohol see  ALCOHOL
evaporated milk This canned, unsweetened milk is fresh, homogenized milk from which 60 percent of the water has been removed. Vitamin D is added for extra nutritional value. It comes in whole, lowfat and skim forms; the whole-milk version must contain at least 7.9 percent milk fat, the lowfat has about half that and the skim version 1/2 percent or less. As it comes from the can, evaporated milk is used to enrich custards or add a creamy texture to many dishes. When mixed with an equal amount of water, it can be substituted for fresh milk in recipes. Evaporated milk is less expensive than fresh milk and is therefore popular for many cooked dishes. It has a slightly caramelized, "canned" flavor that is not appreciated by all who taste it. Canned milk can be stored at room temperature until opened, after which it must be tightly covered and refrigerated for no more than a week. When slightly frozen, evaporated milk can be whipped and used as an inexpensive substitute for whipped cream.
eviscerate [eh-VIHS-uh-rayt] see  DRAW
expiration date see  OPEN DATING
Explorateur cheese This sensuously rich TRIPLE-CREAM CHEESE is made from cow's milk and contains 75 percent fat. It comes in chunky cylinders with white rinds. When ripe, the ivory interior has a delicately piquant flavor. Explorateur is wonderful as a snack or after-dinner cheese served with a dry, fruity white wine. See also  CHEESE.
extracts Concentrated flavorings derived from various foods or plants, usually through evaporation or DISTILLATION. Extracts can come in several forms including solid (as in a bouillon cube), liquid (such as vanilla extract) or jellylike (as with a DEMI-GLACE). They deliver a powerful flavor impact to foods without adding excess volume or changing the consistency. Liquid extracts will keep indefinitely if stored in a cool, dark place. See also  ESSENCES.
espresso [ehs-PREHS-oh] A dark, strong coffee made by forcing steam (or hot water) through finely ground, Italian-roast coffee especially blended for making espresso. This form of brewing produces a thin layer of creamy, dark beige froth on the coffee's surface. Espresso is served in a tiny espresso (or DEMITASSE) cup. An espresso doppio  [DOHP-pyoh] is simply a double espresso.
Esrom cheese [EHS-rom] Named for its town of origin, Esrom, Denmark, this semisoft cheese has a mildly pungent flavor that's well complemented by dark beer or bold red wines. As it ages, its flavor intensifies until strong and earthy. Esrom has a thin, yellow-brown rind and a pale yellow interior studded with irregular holes. See also  CHEESE.
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