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207 results found.
Term Pronounciation Definition
grass mushroom see  STRAW MUSHROOM
grate To reduce a large piece of food to small particles or thin shreds by rubbing it against a coarse, serrated surface, usually on a kitchen utensil called a GRATER. A FOOD PROCESSOR fitted with the metal blade can also be used to reduce food to small bits or, fitted with the shredding disc, to long, thin strips. The food to be grated should be firm, which in the case of cheese can usually be accomplished by refrigeration. Grating food makes it easier to incorporate with other foods.
grater Graters come in several shapes — the most popular styles are flat, cylindrical and box-shape. They're used to reduce hard foods to small particles or long, thin strips. Most graters are made of metal or plastic that has been perforated with sharp-edged, small- or medium-size holes or slits. Many have handles at the top for a sure grip. Graters made of stainless steel will not rust, whereas those of tinned steel will. See also  MOULI GRATER; NUTMEG GRATER.
gratin; gratinée [GRAH-tn (Fr. , gra-TAN , ), grah-tee-NAY] A gratin  is any dish that is topped with cheese or bread crumbs mixed with bits of butter, then heated in the oven or under the broiler until brown and crispy. The terms au gratin or gratinée refer to any dish prepared in such a manner. Special round or oval gratin pans and dishes are ovenproof and shallow, which increases a dish's surface area, thereby insuring a larger crispy portion for each serving.
Gravenstein apple [GRA-vuhn-steen] This crisp, juicy, sweetly tart apple has a beautiful green skin streaked with red. It's in season from August to late September and available mainly on the West Coast. Although the Gravenstein is considered an all-purpose apple and makes delicious pies and applesauce, it does not do well when baked whole. See also  APPLE.
Graves [GRAHV] Any of several notable wines from the region of Graves, an important wine-producing area in France's BORDEAUX region. Although the name Graves  is generally associated with several fine, dry white wines, the reds are also quite distinctive. They are, however, generally bottled under the name of their château of origin, though the Graves designation is usually in fine print somewhere on the label.
gravlax [GRAHV-lahks] This Swedish specialty of raw salmon cured in a salt-sugar-dill mixture is prized around the world. It's sliced paper-thin and served on dark bread as an appetizer, on an open-faced sandwich or as part of a smorgasbord, often accompanied by a dill-mustard sauce. Gravlax can usually be found in gourmet markets or specialty fish markets. It can be stored, tightly wrapped, in the refrigerator for up to a week.
gravy A sauce made from meat juices, usually combined with a liquid such as chicken or beef broth, wine or milk and thickened with flour, cornstarch or some other thickening agent. A gravy may also be the simple juices left in the pan after meat, poultry or fish has been cooked.
gravy boat An elongated, boat-shaped pitcher used to serve gravy. A gravy boat usually sits on a matching plate, which is used to catch gravy drips. Sometimes the plate is permanently attached to the pitcher. A matching ladle often accompanies a gravy boat. Also called sauce boat .
gravy boat An elongated, boat-shaped pitcher used to serve gravy. A gravy boat usually sits on a matching plate, which is used to catch gravy drips. Sometimes the plate is permanently attached to the pitcher. A matching ladle often accompanies a gravy boat. Also called sauce boat .
gray trout see  WEAKFISH
grease v.  To rub the surface of a pan — such as a griddle, muffin pan or cake pan — with grease or SHORTENING in order to prevent the food prepared in it from sticking. Grease and flour refers to rubbing the pan with grease or shortening before lightly dusting it with flour. The flour coating is applied by sprinkling the pan with flour, then inverting it and tapping the bottom of the pan to remove any excess flour. grease n.  Any RENDERED animal fat, such as bacon, beef or chicken fat.
grease mop An inexpensive kitchen tool that looks like a miniature rag mop made with absorbent white strips. When a grease mop is brushed over the surface of a soup or stock, the strips absorb floating grease. Grease mops (also called fat mops ) are available in specialty gourmet shops and the cookware section of some department stores. They may be washed with hot, soapy water or placed in a dishwasher.
Great Lakes lettuce see  CRISPHEAD LETTUCE
great Northern bean Large white beans that resemble LIMA BEANS in shape but that have a delicate, distinctive flavor. They're grown in the Midwest and are generally available dried. As with other dried beans, they must be soaked before cooking. Great Northern beans are particularly popular in baked bean dishes and can be substituted for any white beans in most recipes. See also  BEANS.
grecque, à la [ah lah GREHK] French for "in the Greek style," usually referring to vegetables (such as mushrooms and artichokes) and herbs cooked in olive oil and lemon juice and served cold as an appetizer.
Greek coffee A rich, intensely strong brew made by boiling finely ground coffee and water together in a long-handled, open, brass or copper pot called an ibrik . Sugar and spices are sometimes added to the grounds before brewing begins. Greek coffee is often brought to a boil three times before it's considered ready. It's poured directly into tiny DEMITASSE cups, which means that each cup gets its share of fine coffee grounds. Let the coffee sit for a few moments to allow the sediment to settle. See also  COFFEE.
green bean The green bean has a long, slender green pod with small seeds inside. The entire pod is edible. It's also called string bean  (because of the fibrous string — now bred out of the species — that used to run down the pod's seam) and snap bean  (for the sound the bean makes when broken in half). The wax bean  is a pale yellow variety of green bean. Green beans are available year-round, with a peak season of May to October. Choose slender beans that are crisp, bright-colored and free of blemishes. Store in the refrigerator, tightly wrapped in a plastic bag, for up to 5 days. Cook gently by steaming or simmering just until tender-crisp. Green beans have a fair amount of vitamins A and C. See also  BEANS.
greengage plum A small, round, tangy-sweet plum with a greenish-yellow skin and flesh. It's good for both out-of-hand eating and cooking. See also  PLUM.
green goddess dressing This dressing was created in the 1920s by the chef at San Francisco's Palace Hotel in honor of actor George Arliss, who was appearing locally in a play called "Green Goddess." The classic green goddess dressing is a blend of mayonnaise, tarragon vinegar, anchovies, parsley, chives, tarragon, scallions and garlic. In addition to dressing salads, it's often used as a sauce for fish and shellfish.
green head see  STRIPED BASS
greenling Found along the Pacific coast of the United States, this rather ugly fish has a huge mouth and sharp teeth. There are nine greenling species but only one, the LINGCOD (see listing ), is generally sold commercially. See also  FISH.
green onion see  SCALLION
green pea see  ENGLISH PEA
green pepper see  SWEET PEPPERS
green peppercorn see  PEPPERCORN
greens Edible leaves of certain plants such as the BEET, COLLARD, DANDELION and TURNIP. Greens are usually steamed or quickly cooked in some other manner. See also  AMARANTH; BROCCOLI RAAB; CALLALOO; CHARD; CHICORY; ITALIAN DANDELION; KOHLRABI; MUSTARD GREENS.
green tea see  TEA
gremolata; gremolada [greh-moh-LAH-tah] A garnish made of minced parsley, lemon peel and garlic. It's sprinkled over OSSO BUCO and other dishes to add a fresh, sprightly flavor.
grenadine [grehn-uh-DEEN, GREHN-uh-deen] A sweet, deep red, pomegranate-flavored syrup used to color and flavor drinks and desserts. At one time, grenadine was made exclusively from pomegranates grown on the island of Grenada in the Caribbean. Now other fruit-juice concentrates are also used to make the syrup. Grenadine sometimes contains alcohol, so be sure and check the label.
griddle A special flat, customarily rimless pan designed to cook food (such as pancakes) with a minimal amount of fat or oil. Griddles are usually made of thick, heavy metals that are good heat conductors, such as cast aluminum or cast iron. Some griddles have a nonstick coating. Like a frying pan, they usually have a long handle; some have handgrips on opposite sides.
griddle cake Another name for PANCAKE.
grill n.  1. A heavy metal grate that is set over hot coals or other heat source and used to cook foods such as steak or hamburgers. 2. A dish of food (usually meat, such as MIXED GRILL) cooked on a grill. grill v.  To prepare food on a grill over hot coals or other heat source. The term barbecue  is often used synonymously with grill.
grillade [gruh-LAHD, gree-YAHD] 1. French for "grilled (or broiled) food," usually meat. 2. A CREOLE dish of pieces of pounded round steak seared in hot fat, then braised in a rich sauce with vegetables and tomatoes. Grillade is customarily served with GRITS.
grillettes [gree-YEHT] Morsels of fatty meat (usually pork or duck) that are grilled or fried until very crisp.
grind To reduce food to small particles. Coffee beans can be ground in a coffee GRINDER, while meats such as beef must be run through a meat grinder. A FOOD PROCESSOR fitted with a metal blade can also grind some foods. Food can be ground to various degrees — fine, medium and coarse.
grinder 1. Any of various hand-driven or electric devices used to reduce food to small particles of varying degrees. Coffee grinders are electric and usually have an exposed, disk-style blade inside the unit's container. The grind can be adjusted from fine  to coarse . Some nuts and spices can also be ground in a coffee grinder. Meat grinders can be either manual (operated by a hand crank) or electric; the housing can be made of cast iron or tough plastic. Hand-operated meat grinders are attached to a countertop by a clamp-and-screw mechanism, whereas electric models are freestanding. They both work on the same principle, by forcing chunks of meat through a rotating blade, then through a perforated cutting disk. See also  NUT MILL. 2. In some regions, "grinder" also refers to a huge sandwich; see HERO SANDWICH.
grissini [gruh-SEE-nee] Italian for "breadsticks" (the singular form is grissino ), referring to thin, crisp breadsticks that originated in Turin, Italy. They're available commercially in many supermarkets.
grits Though it's now commonly used to mean "HOMINY grits," the term "grits" actually refers to any coarsely ground grain such as corn, oats or rice. Most grits come in a choice of grinds — coarse, medium and fine. Grits can be cooked with water or milk — usually by boiling or baking — and eaten as hot cereal or served as a side dish. See also  GROATS.
groats Hulled crushed grain, such as barley, buckwheat or oats. The most widely used are BUCKWHEAT groats (also known as KASHA,  which are usually cooked in a manner similar to rice. Though groats are generally thought to be more coarsely ground than GRITS, they come in a variety of grinds including coarse, medium and fine. The two names — grits and groats — are often used synonymously. Groats are widely used in cereals, as a side dish with vegetables or as a thickener and enricher for soup.
grog A hot drink made with rum, a sweetener such as sugar or honey and boiling water. Grog is served in a ceramic or glass mug and often garnished with a slice of lemon and a few whole cloves. It has long been considered a curative for colds but is generally consumed simply for its pleasure- and warmth-giving properties.
ground beef Also referred to as hamburger , ground beef is simply beef that has been ground or finely chopped. The price of ground beef is determined by the cut of meat from which it was made and the amount of fat incorporated into the mix. High-fat mixtures are less costly but will shrink more when cooked. The least expensive product is sold as regular ground beef or regular hamburger. It's usually made with trimmings of the less expensive cuts such as BRISKET and SHANK, and can contain up to 30 percent fat. The moderately priced ground chuck is the next level of ground beef. Because it contains enough fat (about 15 to 20 percent) to give it flavor and make it juicy, yet not enough to cause excess shrinkage, ground chuck is the best meat for hamburgers. The leanest (around 11 percent fat) and most expensive of the ground meats are ground round and ground sirloin.  Though they're great for calorie watchers, they become quite dry when cooked beyond medium-rare. Ground beef is sold fresh and frozen, prepackaged in bulk (usually 1 to 5 pounds) or in preformed patties. It may also be ground to order. The way it is used determines how the beef should be ground. In general, the finer the beef is ground, the more compact it will be when cooked. For instance, firm-textured combinations such as MEATLOAF or MEATBALLS should be made with beef that has been ground at least 2 or 3 times. For hamburgers, however, where a light, juicy texture is preferable, the beef should be coarsely ground. Ground beef should be lightly wrapped before storing in the coldest section of the refrigerator for up to 2 days. To freeze, shape into individual patties or a large, flat disk and wrap with freezer-proof packaging. It can be frozen up to 6 months. See also  BEEF; HAMBURGER.
ground cherry see  CAPE GOOSEBERRY
groundnut see  PEANUT
grouper [GROO-per] Although some weigh 1/3 ton, the average size of this fish is from 5 to 15 pounds. Groupers are found in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico and the North and South Atlantic. They're marketed whole as well as in fillets and steaks. They have a lean, firm flesh that is suitable for baking, broiling, frying, poaching or steaming. The grouper's skin, which is very strongly flavored, should always be removed before cooking. The most popular members of this sea bass family are the black grouper, Nassau grouper, red grouper and yellowmouth (also called yellowfin ) grouper. See also  FISH.
grouse see  GAME BIRDS
gruel [GROO-uhl] A cereal (usually oatmeal) cooked with water or milk and generally of a very thin consistency.
grunion [GRUHN-yuhn] Tiny (3- to 6-ounce) fish found along the Southern California coast, known for their spawning habits. The "running of the grunion" occurs by the light of the full moon as these silvery fish wriggle their way above high tide to spawn in the wet sand. Legally, grunion can only be caught by hand, though many people snare them with nets or scoops. The moderately fat grunion are best broiled, deep-fried or sautéed. See also  FISH.
grunt 1. Named after the grunting noise it makes, this rich, sweet-flavored fish can be found in the United States mainly in Florida's coastal waters. Anatomically related to the SNAPPER, grunt is generally available only in its region, and is best either broiled or sautéed. See also  FISH. 2. An old-fashioned dessert of fruit topped with biscuit dough and stewed. Also called slump .
Gruviera cheese; Groviera [groo-vee-YEHR-uh] This Italian version of the Swiss GRUYÈRE has a sweet, nutlike flavor that is very like the original. It can be used in any manner suitable for Gruyère. See also  CHEESE.
Gruyère cheese [groo-YEHR, gree-YEHR] Swiss Gruyère is named for the valley of the same name in the canton of Fribourg. This moderate-fat, cow's-milk cheese has a rich, sweet, nutty flavor that is highly prized both for out-of-hand eating and cooking. It's usually aged for 10 to 12 months and has a golden brown rind and a firm, pale yellow interior with well-spaced, medium-size holes. It's made in 100-pound wheels that are cut into wedges for the market. Gruyère is also produced in France and several other countries. A processed Gruyère is also marketed in small, foil-wrapped wedges but, as with all PROCESSED CHEESE, it in no way compares to the real thing. See also  CHEESE.
guacamole [gwah-kah-MOH-lee, gwah-kah-MOH-leh] A popular Mexican specialty of mashed avocado mixed with lemon or lime juice and various seasonings (usually chili powder and red pepper). Sometimes finely chopped tomato, green onion and CILANTRO are added. Guacamole can be used as a dip, sauce, topping or side dish. It must be covered closely and tightly to prevent discoloration.
guajillo chile [gwah-HEE-yoh] The skin of this dried CHILE is shiny-smooth and a deep, burnished red. The chile is very tough and must be soaked longer than most dried chiles. The flavorful guajillo is pointed, long and narrow (about 4 inches by 1 inch). Because it can be quite hot, the guajillo is also sometimes called the travieso  ("mischievous") chile  in reference to its not-so-playful sting. It's used in both sauces and cooked dishes.
guar gum A gummy substance obtained from legume-family plants, used as a thickener and STABILIZER in commercial food processing. See also  GUM ARABIC; GUM TRAGANCANTH; XANTHAN GUM.
guava [GWAH-vah] This sweet, fragrant tropical fruit grows in its native South America as well as in California, Florida and Hawaii. There are many varieties of guavas, which can range in size from a small egg to a medium apple. Typically, the fruit is oval in shape and about 2 inches in diameter. The color of the guava's thin skin can range from yellow to red to purple-black, the flesh from pale yellow to bright red. Guavas are usually only available fresh in the region where they're grown. Choose those that give to gentle palm pressure but that have not yet begun to show spots. To be eaten raw, guavas should be very ripe. Ripen green ones at room temperature. Store ripe guavas in the vegetable drawer of the refrigerator for up to 4 days. Guavas make excellent jams, preserves and sauces. Canned whole guavas as well as juice, jams, jellies, preserves and sauce are available in many supermarkets. Fresh guavas are a good source of vitamins A and C.
güero chile [GWEH-roh] The generic term for yellow chiles such as HUNGARIAN WAX or SANTA FE GRANDE. See also  CHILE.
gugelhopf see  KUGELHOPF
guinea fowl [GIHN-ee] Thought to have originated in Guinea, West Africa, this small bird is a relative of the chicken and partridge. The meat of the guinea fowl is dark, somewhat dry and has a pleasantly gamey flavor. Guinea hens are more tender than the male of the species. The hens range in size from 3/4 pound (called guinea  squab ) to about 4 pounds. Guinea fowl are available fresh and frozen. If fresh, loosen package wrapping slightly and remove any giblets from the body cavity before storing in the refrigerator for up to 2 days. Frozen guinea fowl should be thawed overnight in the refrigerator and used within 2 days. Never refreeze fowl once it's thawed. Guinea fowl may be prepared in any way suitable for chicken, keeping in mind that because the meat is drier, moist cooking methods will produce a more satisfactory end result. Any fowl over 2 1/2 pounds should probably be BARDED with fat before cooking to ensure moistness.
grasshopper A COCKTAIL made with cream, CRÈME DE MENTHE and white CRÈME DE CACAO. Because it's very sweet, a grasshopper is usually served after dinner.
grasshopper pie Like the drink of the same name, this light, airy and rich pie is flavored with CRÈME DE MENTHE and white CRÈME DE CACAO. The richness comes from whipped cream and the lightness from beaten egg whites. Grasshopper pie usually has a Graham cracker- or cookie-crumb crust. It must be refrigerated several hours to set, and is served chilled.
garni [gahr-NEE] The French word for "garnish" when used as an adjective describing a food. For example, "steak garni" usually means it's accompanied by vegetables and potatoes.
garnish n.  A decorative, edible accompaniment to finished dishes, from appetizers to desserts. Garnishes can be placed under, around or on food, depending on the dish. They vary from simple sprigs of parsley or exotically carved vegetables on plated food, to CROUTONS in soup, to chocolate leaves on top of chocolate mousse. Garnishes should not only be appealing to the eye, but should also echo or complement the flavor of the dish. garnish v.  To decorate or accompany a dish with a garnish.
garniture [gahr-nih-TEUR] The French word for "garnish," used as a noun.
garum [GAR-uhm] The ancient Romans used garum as a flavoring much like salt. This extremely pungent sauce was made by fermenting fish in a brine solution for several days in the sun. The resulting liquid was combined with various other flavorings such as oil, pepper, wine and spices. See also  FISH SAUCE.
gaspergoo; gaspergou [gas-per-GOO] A freshwater DRUM that inhabits deep rivers and lakes throughout the United States. Also known as goo  or gou , this fish has a white, lean flesh with a succulently sweet flavor. Gaspergoo is most commonly available in the spring and summer months. It's suitable for frying, grilling, pan-frying or steaming. See also  FISH.
galangal; galanga root; galingale [guh-LANG-guhl] A rhizome with a hot, ginger-peppery flavor, galangal is used primarily as a seasoning. Greater galangal, also called Laos ginger , Siamese ginger  and Thai ginger , is the best known and most widely available. It grows throughout Southeast Asia and is particularly popular in Thai cooking. This creamy white-fleshed rhizome is often used as a substitute for GINGER. Laos  is the name given to the powdered form of greater galangal, which is slightly more intense than the fresh form. Greater galangel can be found in Asian markets. Lesser galangal has an orangish flesh and a much stronger, hotter flavor. It's not as well known and is seldom seen in the United States.
galantine [GAL-uhn-teen, gal-ahn-TEEN] A classic French dish that resembles a meat-wrapped PÂTÉ. It's made from poultry, meat or fish that is boned and stuffed with a FORCEMEAT, which is often studded with flavor- and eye-enhancers such as pistachio nuts, olives and TRUFFLES. The stuffed meat roll is formed into a symmetrical loaf, wrapped in CHEESECLOTH and gently cooked in stock. It's then chilled, glazed with aspic made from its own jellied stock and garnished with items (such as pistachios, olives and truffles) that have been included in the filling. Galantines are normally served cold, cut in slices.
galette [gah-LEHT] Hailing from France, a galette is a round, rather flat cake made of flaky-pastry dough, yeast dough or sometimes UNLEAVENED dough. The term also applies to a variety of tarts, both savory and sweet, and there are as many variations as there are French regions. They may be topped with fruit, jam, nuts, meat, cheese, etc. Galette des Rois,  the traditional cake served during Twelfth Night festivities, often contains a bean or other token, which is guaranteed to bring the recipient good luck.
Galliano [gal-LYAH-noh] A sweet, anise-flavored, golden yellow LIQUEUR made in Italy.
gallimaufry [gal-luh-MAW-free] Culinarily, this word refers to any dish with a hodgepodge of ingredients, such as a STEW, RAGOÛT or HASH.
game animals A term applied to wild animals that are deemed suitable for human consumption. Some species are now domesticated and because their diets and activity levels are changed, their meat has a different flavor than that of field animals. Game animals are categorized as large game and small game. The most common large game meat is venison, which, though commonly thought of as deer, is a term that broadly includes the meat from elk, moose, reindeer, caribou and antelope. Other popular large game animals include BUFFALO, wild boar and, to a lesser degree, bear. Additionally, there are even rarer varieties eaten around the world such as camel, elephant, kangaroo, zebra and wild sheep and goats. The most common small game animal is RABBIT. Squirrel is also quite popular, followed distantly by beaver, muskrat, opossum, raccoon, armadillo and even porcupine. Any game found in commercial markets is federally inspected. Whether purchased commercially or obtained directly from the hunter, the factors that determine the meat's quality include the age of the animal (younger animals are more tender), the animal's diet and the time of year the animal was killed (best is fall, after plentiful spring and summer feeding). Equally important is how the dead animal was handled in the field. The meat of many otherwise excellent animals is damaged (and sometimes ruined) because of the manner in which it is dressed and transported after the kill. The tenderness of a particular cut of meat from large game animals is similar to the corresponding cut of beef and pork. In general, wild game is less tender than meat from domestic animals because the wild animals get more exercise and are therefore leaner. What fat there is generally rank-tasting and should be removed. For maximum tenderness, most game meat should be cooked slowly and not overdone. It can be cooked with moist heat by braising, or with dry heat by roasting (with an effort to ensure maximum moistness through BASTING, LARDING or BARDING).
game birds Any wild bird suitable for food, including the larger species (such as wild turkey and goose), medium-sized birds (including PHEASANT and wild duck) and smaller game birds (such as the coot, dove, grouse, hazel hen, lark, mud hen, PARTRIDGE, pigeon, PLOVER, QUAIL, rail, snipe, thrush and woodcock). Except for the few raised on game farms (which are usually expensive), game birds are not readily available. Those that are found in markets are usually of good quality. Most game birds are sold frozen; some of the smaller birds are canned. Factors affecting quality include the age of the bird and the manner in which it was treated after it was killed. Quality birds should have no off odor; the skin should be fresh-looking, not dull or dry. Young birds are best and can be identified by their pliable breastbone, feet and legs; their claws will be sharp. Wild birds are much leaner than the domesticated variety. Because of a lack of natural fat — particularly in younger birds — they must be BASTED, BARDED or LARDED before roasting. Older birds are best cooked with slow, moist heat such as braising, or used in soups or stews.
ganache [gahn-AHSH] A rich chocolate icing made of semisweet chocolate and whipping cream that are heated and stirred together until the chocolate has melted. The mixture is cooled until lukewarm and poured over a cake or torte. Ganache soufflé is made from the same base but often includes a tablespoon or so of rum or cognac. When cooled to room temperature, the mixture is whipped to approximately twice its original volume. Whereas ganache is used to glaze cakes, pastries and tortes, ganache soufflé is generally used to fill them.
garam masala [gah-RAHM mah-SAH-lah] Garam  is the Indian word for "warm" or "hot," and this blend of dry-roasted, ground spices from the colder climes of northern India adds a sense of "warmth" to both palate and spirit. There are as many variations of garam masala (which may contain up to 12 spices) as there are Indian cooks. It can include BLACK PEPPER, CINNAMON, CLOVES, CORIANDER, CUMIN, CARDAMOM, DRIED CHILES, FENNEL, MACE, NUTMEG and other spices. Garam masala may be purchased in Indian markets and in the gourmet section of some supermarkets. It's also easily prepared at home, but should be made in small batches to retain its freshness. As with all spices, it should be stored in a cool, dry place for no more than 6 months. Garam masala is usually either added to a dish toward the end of cooking or sprinkled over the surface just before serving.
garbanzo bean see  CHICKPEA
garbure [gar-BOOR] A vegetable or meat soup so thick it could be considered a stew or casserole dish. Garbure has many variations, but most commonly contains cabbage, beans, potatoes and bits of pork, bacon or preserved goose. It's usually served with toasted or fried bread. Garbure is immensely popular with Basques and the most famous version comes from Béarn, France.
garde manger [gahrd mahn-ZHAY] A French term for the cool, well-ventilated pantry area (usually in hotels and large restaurants) where cold buffet dishes are prepared and other foods are stored in refrigerated units. Some of the items prepared in a garde manger are salads, PÂTÉS, CHAUD-FROIDS and other decorative dishes. The person in charge of this area is known as chef garde manger. 
garden pea see  ENGLISH PEA
gari [GAH-ree] see  BENI SHOGA
garlic Garlic has long been credited with providing and prolonging physical strength and was fed to Egyptian slaves building the giant pyramids. Throughout the centuries, its medicinal claims have included cures for toothaches, consumption, open wounds and evil demons. A member of the lily family, garlic is a cousin to leeks, chives, onions and shallots. The edible bulb or "head" grows beneath the ground. This bulb is made up of sections called cloves, each encased in its own parchmentlike membrane. Today's major garlic suppliers include the United States (mainly California, Texas and Louisiana), France, Spain, Italy and Mexico. There are three major types of garlic available in the United States: the white-skinned, strongly flavored American garlic; the Mexican and Italian garlic, both of which have mauve-colored skins and a somewhat milder flavor; and the Paul Bunyanesque, white-skinned elephant garlic (which is not a true  garlic, but a relative of the LEEK), the most mildly flavored of the three. Depending on the variety, cloves of American, Mexican and Italian garlic can range from 1/2 to 1 1/2 inches in length. Elephant garlic (grown mainly in California) has bulbs the size of a small grapefruit, with huge cloves averaging 1 ounce each. It can be purchased through mail order and in some gourmet markets. Green garlic, available occasionally in specialty produce markets, is young garlic before it begins to form cloves. It resembles a baby LEEK, with a long green top and white bulb, sometimes tinged with pink. The flavor of a baby plant is much softer than that of mature garlic. Fresh garlic is available year-round. Purchase firm, plump bulbs with dry skins. Avoid heads with soft or shriveled cloves, and those stored in the refrigerated section of the produce department. Store fresh garlic in an open container (away from other foods) in a cool, dark place. Properly stored, unbroken bulbs can be kept up to 8 weeks, though they will begin to dry out toward the end of that time. Once broken from the bulb, individual cloves will keep from 3 to 10 days. Garlic is usually peeled before use in recipes. Among the exceptions are roasted garlic bulbs and the famous dish, "chicken with 40 cloves of garlic," in which unpeeled garlic cloves are baked with chicken in a broth until they become sweet and butter-soft. Crushing, chopping, pressing or pureeing garlic releases more of its essential oils and provides a sharper, more assertive flavor than slicing or leaving it whole. Garlic is readily available in forms other than fresh. Dehydrated garlic flakes (sometimes referred to as instant garlic) are slices or bits of garlic that must be reconstituted before using (unless added to a liquid-based dish, such as soup or stew). When dehydrated garlic flakes are ground, the result is garlic powder. Garlic salt is garlic powder blended with salt and a moisture-absorbing agent. Garlic extract and garlic juice are derived from pressed garlic cloves. Though all of these products are convenient, they're a poor flavor substitute for the less expensive, readily available and easy-to-store fresh garlic. One unfortunate side effect of garlic is that, because its essential oils permeate the lung tissue, it remains with the body long after it's been consumed, affecting breath and even skin odor. Chewing chlorophyll tablets or fresh parsley is helpful but, unfortunately, modern-day science has yet to find the perfect antidote for residual garlic odor.
garlic bread Said to have been invented during the late 1940s boom of Italian-American restaurants, garlic bread consists of Italian or French bread slices, spread on both sides with GARLIC BUTTER and heated in the oven. There are many variations, including bread brushed with olive oil and sprinkled with minced garlic and herbs. It can also be broiled or grilled.
garlic butter Softened butter blended with crushed or minced garlic. The intensity of the garlic flavor is governed by the amount of garlic used and the length of time the mixture is allowed to stand. Garlic butter is used on a broad range of foods including GARLIC BREAD, ESCARGOTS, meats, poultry, fish and vegetables.
garlic chives An herb similar to CHIVES, but with a decidedly garlicky nuance, both in aroma and flavor. Garlic chive leaves have long, thin, flat stems, whereas the stalks with flowers are round and more closely resemble regular chives. Open flowers, though beautiful, are a signal that the chives were picked from a more mature plant and will not be as tender as those with unopened buds. Garlic chives can be found in Asian markets and many gourmet produce markets. Store them in a plastic bag in the refrigerator for up to a week. They may be snipped with scissors to the desired length and used in both fresh and cooked dishes. Garlic chives are also called Chinese chives  and ku chai .
garlic flakes see  GARLIC
garlic powder see  GARLIC
garlic press A kitchen tool used to press a garlic clove through small holes, thereby extracting both pulp and juice. Leaving the skin on the clove facilitates cleaning, which should be done immediately after pressing, before any garlic left in the press dries. The press can also be set in a cup of warm water until cleaning time. Some presses contain teeth that push garlic fragments back out through the holes, making cleaning much easier. Garlic presses can be made of aluminum, stainless steel and strong plastics.
garlic salt see  GARLIC
gastronome [GAS-truh-nohm] A connoisseur of good food — someone with a refined palate.
gastronomy [gas-TRON-uh-mee] The art of fine dining; the science of gourmet food and drink.
gastropod [GAS-truh-pod] Often referred to as a univalve , a gastropod can be any of several MOLLUSKS with a single (univalve) shell and single muscle. Among the more common gastropods are the ABALONE, LIMPET, PERIWINKLE, SNAIL and WHELK. With a few exceptions (such as the abalone), gastropods are not as highly regarded culinarily as BIVALVE mollusks such as the CLAM and OYSTER.
gâteau [ga-TOH] The French word for "cake," which can refer to those both plain and fancy.
gâteau Saint-Honoré see  SAINT-HONORÉ
gaufrette [goh-FREHT] 1. Thin, lightly sweet, fan-shaped wafers usually served with ice cream, mousse and other such desserts. When baked on a special gaufrette iron (similar to a waffle iron), the wafer's surface is waffled. Before cooling and crisping, gaufrettes are sometimes curled to form an ice cream cone. 2. Gaufrettes pommes de terre  are crisp, latticed potato wafers.
gazpacho [gahz-PAH-choh] A refreshingly cold, summertime soup hailing from the Andalusia region in southern Spain. This uncooked soup is usually made from a pureed mixture of fresh tomatoes, sweet bell peppers, onions, celery, cucumber, bread crumbs, garlic, olive oil, vinegar and sometimes lemon juice. Gazpacho can be a meal in itself, particularly when extra fresh vegetables such as sliced celery, green onion, cucumber and green pepper are added. Popular garnishes include croutons and diced hard-cooked eggs.
gefilte fish [geh-FIHL-teh] This popular Jewish dish consists of ground fish (usually CARP, PIKE or WHITEFISH) mixed with eggs, MATZO MEAL and seasonings. The mixture is formed into balls or patties that are then simmered in vegetable or fish stock. After chilling, the gefilte fish is served in its own jellied stock and often garnished with grated horseradish, vegetable relishes or dill pickles. The name comes from the Yiddish term for "stuffed (gefüllte) fish;" in the past the mixture was stuffed back into the fish skin before cooking.
gelatin [JEHL-uh-tihn] An odorless, tasteless and colorless thickening agent, which when dissolved in hot water and then cooled, forms a jelly. It's useful for many purposes such as jelling molded desserts and salads, thickening cold soups and glazing CHAUD-FROID preparations. Gelatin is pure protein derived from beef and veal bones, cartilage, tendons and other tissue. Much of the commercial gelatin today is a by-product of pig skin. Until the advent of commercial gelatin in the late 19th century, jelled dishes were not very popular because housewives had to make their own jelling agent by laboriously boiling calves' feet or knuckles. Their only alternative was to use either the hard-to-obtain ISINGLASS (gelatin from fish air bladders) or CARRAGEEN (a dried seaweed product). Granulated gelatin is the most common form of unsweetened commercial gelatin on the market. It's packaged in boxes of 1/4-ounce envelopes and is also available in bulk. Generally, 1 envelope of gelatin will jell 2 cups of liquid. It's important to soak gelatin in cold liquid (whatever the recipe directs) for 3 to 5 minutes before dissolving it. This softens and swells the gelatin granules so they will dissolve smoothly when heated. Not as readily available as granulated gelatin is leaf (or sheet) gelatin, which comes in packages of paper-thin sheets. Four sheets of leaf gelatin equal one package of powdered gelatin. Leaf gelatin must be soaked longer than granulated gelatin and is therefore not as popular. This product is often called for in jelled European dessert reci-pes. It can be found in some gourmet and bakery supply shops. Sweetened gelatin dessert mix is also available in various artificial fruit flavors.
gelato [jeh-LAH-toh] The Italian word for "ice cream," gelato doesn't contain as much air as its American counterpart and therefore has a denser texture. An Italian ice cream parlor is called a gelateria .
gemelli [jay-MEHL-lee] Italian for "twins," referring culinarily to short, 1 1/2-inch twists that resemble two strands of SPAGHETTI twisted together. See also  PASTA.
gem pan; mini muffin pan A miniature muffin pan designed (depending on the pan) to make 12 to 24 tiny muffins about 1 1/2 inches in diameter. "Gem" is an old-fashioned reference to a small (nonyeast) bread or cake.
genevoise, sauce [zhehn-VWAHZ] This classic sauce for fish combines a MIREPOIX and BROWN SAUCE with red wine and fish FUMET. The mixture is cooked, reduced and strained, after which ANCHOVY PASTE, butter and minced mushrooms are added.
Genoese, alla; Genovese, alla [ah-lah jehn-oh-EEZ, ah-lah jehn-oh-VEEZ] Italian for "as prepared in the style of Genoa," a seaport city in northwest Italy. Specifically, it means a dish made or accompanied with PESTO sauce, which originated in Genoa.
génoise [zhayn-WAHZ, zhehn-WAHZ] This rich, light cake is made with flour, sugar, eggs, butter and vanilla. It's similar in texture to a moist SPONGE CAKE. It was developed in Genoa, Italy, adapted by the French and is now baked by gourmet cooks throughout Europe and the United States. Génoise is an extremely versatile cake and is used for many elegant presentations such as PETITS FOURS, cake rolls and BAKED ALASKA.
geoduck; gweduck [GOO-ee duhk] This huge, funny-looking SOFT-SHELL CLAM hails from the Pacific Northwest. It averages 3 pounds in weight and is distinguished by a long (up to 18-inch) neck (siphon) that extends from its 6-inch shell. The neck can be cut or ground and used in chowders. The body meat, when sliced, pounded and sautéed, resembles ABALONE. See also  CLAMS; SHELLFISH.
germ In the food world, the word "germ" refers to a grain (like WHEAT) kernel's nucleus or embryo. Wheat germ is one of the more commercially popular types on the market. The nutritiously endowed germ furnishes thiamine, vitamin E, iron and riboflavin.
German potato salad A bacon-studded potato salad made with a dressing of bacon fat, vinegar, seasonings and sometimes sugar. German potato salad can be served hot, cold or at room temperature. Favorite additions include minced onion, celery and green pepper.
Gervais cheese [zhair-VAY] The most well-known brand of PETIT SUISSE, made in Normandy and named for Jules Gervais, a famous French cheesemaker. See also  CHEESE.
Gewürztraminer [guh-VURTS-trah-mee-ner] The German word Gewürz  means "spicy," and this white wine is known for its crisp, spicy characteristics. It's a specialty of the French region Alsace — the area that buffers Germany and France — and is also produced in Germany and California. Gewürztraminer has a distinctively pungent, perfumy, yet clean flavor. It's available in varying degrees of sweetness; the drier versions complement fish and poultry, the slightly sweeter styles are perfect for summer SPRITZERS, and the sweet LATE-HARVEST versions make excellent DESSERT WINES. Gewürztraminer is best when drunk fairly young because even the vintage versions won't usually age well over 5 years.
ghee [GEE] Butter that has been slowly melted, thereby separating the milk solids (which sink to the bottom of the pan) from the golden liquid on the surface. This form of CLARIFIED BUTTER is taken a step further by simmering it until all of the moisture evaporates and the milk solids begin to brown, giving the resulting butter a nutty, caramellike flavor and aroma. This extra step also gives ghee a longer life and much higher SMOKE POINT than regular clarified butter. Because the smoke point is raised to almost 375°F, ghee is practical for a variety of sautéing and frying uses. Although it originated in India, the best commercially available ghee comes from Holland, followed closely by products from Scandinavia and Australia. It's quite expensive, but can be purchased in Middle Eastern, Indian and some gourmet markets. Whereas ghee was once made only with butter derived from water buffalo milk, today it can be made with any unsalted butter. Making it at home is not a difficult task, and flavored ghees are created by simply adding ingredients such as ginger, peppercorns or cumin at the beginning of the clarifying process. Tightly wrapped ghee can be refrigerated for up to 6 months and frozen up to a year.
gherkin [GER-kihn] The young fruit of a variety of small, dark green cucumbers especially grown to make pickles. Gherkins are usually sold in jars, packed in pickling brine. CORNICHONS are the French version of this pickle.
gianduja [zhahn-DOO-yah] Hailing from Switzerland, gianduja is a silky-smooth, hazelnut-flavored chocolate that comes in several styles including milk chocolate and bittersweet chocolate. It's available in gourmet markets and through mail order.
giant garlic see  ROCAMBOLE
giant sea bass see  BASS
giardiniera, alla [ah-lah jahr-dee-NYAY-rah] From the Italian giardiniere  ("gardener"), culinarily this term refers to dishes served with mixed sliced vegetables.
giblets [JIHB-lihts] Generally, the term "giblets" refers to the heart, liver and gizzard of domesticated fowl and game birds. Sometimes the neck is also included in this grouping. All but the liver are used for flavoring stocks and soups. The liver is usually cooked separately and, in the case of ducks and geese, is considered a delicacy.
Gibson [GIHB-suhn] Named for the famous American "Gibson Girl" illustrator, Charles Dana Gibson, this COCKTAIL is identical to the MARTINI (gin and dry VERMOUTH), differing only in that it is served garnished with a tiny white onion instead of an olive.
gigot [zhee-GOH] French for "leg of mutton." The term is also used to refer to a leg of lamb, in which case the French call it gigot d'agneau .
gimlet [GIHM-liht] A COCKTAIL made with SUGAR SYRUP, lime juice, vodka or gin and sometimes soda water. According to the British, the secret of a good gimlet is thorough stirring.
gin [JIHN] An unaged LIQUOR made by distilling grains such as barley, corn or rye with JUNIPER BERRIES. London dry gin is any colorless gin, the majority of which is made in England and America. Hollands gin, also known as genever  or jenever gin , is a Dutch product that tastes very different from other gins because it's made with a large proportion of barley malt. The first Dutch gin was used as medicine. See also  SLOE GIN.
gin fizz A COCKTAIL made with gin, lemon juice, sugar and soda, served in a tall glass over ice. When an egg white is added, the drink is called a silver fizz. Adding ORANGE-FLOWER WATER and cream or milk to a silver fizz transforms it into a Ramos gin fizz, a New Orleans original created in the late 1800s by bar owner Henry Ramos.
ginger; gingerroot A plant from tropical and subtropical regions that's grown for its gnarled and bumpy root. Most ginger comes from Jamaica, followed by India, Africa and China. Gingerroot's name comes from the Sanskrit word for "horn root," undoubtedly referring to its knobby appearance. It has a tan skin and a flesh that ranges in color from pale greenish yellow to ivory. The flavor is peppery and slightly sweet, while the aroma is pungent and spicy. This extremely versatile root has long been a mainstay in Asian and Indian cooking and found its way early on into European foods as well. The Chinese, Japanese and East Indians use fresh gingerroot in a variety of forms — grated, ground and slivered — in many savory dishes. Europeans and most Americans, however, are more likely to use the dried ground form of ginger, usually in baked goods. Fresh ginger is available in two forms — young and mature. Young ginger, sometimes called spring ginger, has a pale, thin skin that requires no peeling. It's very tender and has a milder flavor than its mature form. Young ginger can be found in most Asian markets during the springtime. Mature ginger has a tough skin that must be carefully peeled away to preserve the delicate, most desirable flesh just under the surface. Look for mature ginger with smooth skin (wrinkled skin indicates that the root is dry and past its prime). It should have a fresh, spicy fragrance. Fresh unpeeled gingerroot, tightly wrapped, can be refrigerated for up to 3 weeks and frozen for up to 6 months. To use frozen ginger, slice off a piece of the unthawed root and return the rest to the freezer. Place peeled gingerroot in a screw-top glass jar, cover with dry SHERRY or MADEIRA and refrigerate up to 3 months. The wine will impart some of its flavor to the ginger — a minor disadvantage to weigh against having peeled ginger ready and waiting. On the plus side, the delicious, ginger-flavored wine can be reused for cooking. The flavor of dried ground ginger is very different from that of its fresh form and is not an appropriate substitute for dishes specifying fresh ginger. It is, however, delicious in many savory dishes such as soups, curries and meats, a sprightly addition to fruit compotes, and indispensable in sweets like GINGERBREAD, GINGERSNAPS and many spice cookies. Ginger is the flavor that has long given the popular beverages GINGER ALE and GINGER BEER their claim to fame. In addition to its fresh and dried ground forms, ginger comes in several other guises. Crystallized or candied ginger has been cooked in a sugar syrup and coated with coarse sugar. Another form called preserved ginger has been preserved in a sugar-salt mixture. These types of ginger can be found in Asian markets and many supermarkets. They are generally used as a confection or added to desserts. Melon and preserved ginger are a classic combination. Pickled ginger, available in Asian markets, has been preserved in sweet vinegar. It's most often used as a garnish for Asian dishes. The sweet red candied ginger is packed in a red sugar syrup. It's used to flavor dishes both sweet and savory. See also  SPICES; HERB AND SPICE CHART.
ginger ale A carbonated, ginger-flavored SOFT DRINK.
ginger beer Made in both nonalcoholic and alcoholic forms, this carbonated beverage tastes like GINGER ALE with a stronger ginger flavor. It's an integral ingredient in the mixed drink, MOSCOW MULE.
gingerbread This sweet dates back to the Middle Ages, when fair ladies presented the rather hard, honey-spice bread as a favor to dashing knights going into tournament battle. In those days, gingerbread was intricately shaped and decorated, sometimes with gold leaf. Today, gingerbread generally refers to one of two desserts. It can be a dense, ginger-spiced cookie flavored with molasses or honey and cut into fanciful shapes (such as the popular gingerbread man). Or, particularly in the United States, it can describe a dark, moist cake flavored with molasses, ginger and other spices. This gingerbread "cake" is usually baked in a square pan and often topped with lemon sauce or whipped cream.
gingerroot see  GINGER
gingersnap A small, very crisp ginger cookie flavored with molasses.
ginkgo nut [GING-koh, JING-koh] This buff-colored, delicately sweet nut comes from the center of the inedible fruit of the maidenhair tree, a native of China. Fresh ginkgo nuts are available during fall and winter and can be found in many Asian and gourmet markets. Their hard shells must be removed with a nutcracker and the nutmeats soaked in hot water to loosen their skins. Ginkgo nuts are also available dried or canned in brine. The canned nuts must be rinsed of brine before using. Ginkgo nuts, which turn bright green when cooked, are particularly popular in Japanese cooking. See also  NUTS.
girolle [zhee-ROHL] see  CHANTERELLE
gizzard Found in the lower stomach of fowl, this muscular pouch grinds the bird's food, often with the aid of stones or grit swallowed for this purpose. The portion that actually does the work is in the center of the pouch and is usually removed before the gizzard reaches the market. Gizzards can be very tough unless cooked slowly with moist heat, such as braising.
gjetost cheese [YEHT-ohst] Made from a combination of goat's- and cow's-milk WHEY, this Norwegian cheese is faintly sweet and caramel colored. The texture can range from semifirm like fudge to the consistency of stiff peanut butter. The brown color and sweetness result from slowly cooking the milk until its sugars caramelize. Gjetost is particularly good spread on dark bread. Scandinavia's mysost  cheese (also called primost ) is made exclusively from cow's milk in exactly the same way and tastes almost identical to gjetost. See also  CHEESE.
glacé [glah-SAY] French for "glazed" or "frozen," such as MARRONS GLACÉS (candied chestnuts). It can also refer to the frosting on a cake or frozen desserts or drinks.
glace [GLAHS] The French word for "ice cream."
glace de viande [glahs duh vee-AHND] French for "meat glaze," glace de viande  is made by boiling meat juices until they are reduced to a thick syrup. It's used to add flavor and color to sauces.
glacé fruit [glah-SAY] see  CANDIED FRUIT
glass noodles see  CELLOPHANE NOODLES
glasswort see  SAMPHIRE
Glayva [gla-VAH] This Scottish LIQUEUR is made with SCOTCH WHISKY, honey and a well-guarded herbal formula.
glaze n.  A thin, glossy coating for both hot and cold foods. A savory glaze might be a reduced meat stock or ASPIC, whereas a sweet glaze could be anything from melted jelly to a chocolate coating. An EGG WASH brushed on pastry before baking to add color and shine is also called a glaze. glaze v.  To coat food with a thin, liquid, sweet or savory mixture that will be smooth and shiny after setting.
globe artichoke see  ARTICHOKE
glögg [GLUHG, GLOEG] Especially popular during Advent, this Swedish spiced-wine punch gets its punch  from the addition of AQUAVIT or BRANDY. To take the chill off cold winter nights, it's served hot in cups with several almonds and raisins added to each serving.
Gloucester cheese [GLOSS-tuhr] Also called double Gloucester , this dense, satiny, golden yellow cheese is one of England's finest. It was once made only with the milk from Gloucester cows (now almost extinct) and until the end of World War II single (smaller) Gloucester rounds were also available. The mellow, full-flavored double Gloucester comes in large, flat rounds or tall cylinders — both with a natural rind. It's a fine, multipurpose cheese equally as good with a meal or after it. See also  CHEESE.
glucose [GLOO-kohs] The most common form of this sugar is dextroglucose, a naturally occurring form commonly referred to as DEXTROSE (also called corn sugar  and grape sugar ). This form of glucose has many sources including grape juice, certain vegetables and honey. It has about half the sweetening power of regular sugar. Because it doesn't crystallize easily, it's used to make commercial candies and frostings, as well as in baked goods, soft drinks and other processed foods. Corn syrup is a form of glucose made from cornstarch.
gluten [GLOO-tihn] Wheat and other cereals that are made into flour contain proteins, one of which is glutenin, commonly known as gluten . Viewed alone, gluten is a tough, elastic, grayish substance resembling chewing gum. It's the gluten in flour that, when a dough is kneaded, helps hold in the gas bubbles formed by the leavening agent (see  LEAVENER). Gas contained within a dough or batter helps a bread or other baked good rise, creating a light structure. Most (but not all) flours contain gluten in varying amounts. Bread (or hard wheat) flour has a high gluten content and is therefore good for yeast breads, which require an elastic framework. On the other hand, low-protein (and therefore low-gluten) cake flour has a softer, less elastic quality and is better suited for cakes. See also  BREAD; FLOUR; SEITAN.
gluten flour see  FLOUR
glycerin; glycerine [GLIH-ser-ihn] The commercial name for glycerol , a colorless, odorless, syrupy liquid — chemically, an alcohol — obtained from fats and oils and used to retain moisture and add sweetness to foods. It also helps prevent sugar crystallization in foods like candy. Outside the world of food, glycerin is used in cosmetics, inks and certain glues.
gnocchi [NYOH-kee, NOH-kee] Italian for "dumplings," gnocchi can be made from potatoes, flour or FARINA. Eggs or cheese can be added to the dough, and finely chopped spinach is also a popular addition. Gnocchi are generally shaped into little balls, cooked in boiling water and served with butter and Parmesan or a savory sauce. The dough can also be chilled, sliced and either baked or fried. Gnocchi are usually served as a side dish and make excellent accompaniments for meat or poultry.
goa bean [GOH-uh] see  WINGED BEAN
goat Though goat meat has been enjoyed in southern Europe, Latin America and many Mediterranean countries for centuries, it has never really caught on in the United States. The meat of mature goats is extremely tough and strong-flavored. Most goat meat consumed comes from a kid, a baby goat that is usually not more than 6 months old. Kid meat is as tender and delicate as that of young lamb, and it can be prepared in any manner suitable for lamb. It can sometimes be found in specialty meat markets. Goats also provide milk, which is usually made into goat cheese, better known as CHÈVRE. Fresh goat's milk can sometimes be purchased in health-food stores; canned goat's milk is carried in many supermarkets.
goat cheese see  CHÈVRE CHEESE
goatfish Found in temperate to tropical seas, the goatfish is so named because of its two long chin barbels, which resemble a goat's whiskers. Probably the most famous member of this fish family is the superior RED MULLET, which is not a mullet at all. Depending on the species, goatfish can range in color from brilliant yellow to rose red. The meat is firm and lean and can be cooked in almost any manner including broiling, frying and baking. In the United States, goatfish is usually only available on the East Coast and throughout the Florida Keys. See also  FISH.
goat's milk see  GOAT
gobo see  BURDOCK
gohan [goh-HAHN] Japanese cooked white rice that has undergone a precooking process of washing, rinsing and soaking to remove as much starch as possible. This lengthy process can take up to an hour and reduces stickiness in the finished rice.
golden Cadillac Named for its luxurious creamy texture and golden color, this COCKTAIL is made with GALLIANO, white CRÈME DE CACAO and heavy cream.
Golden Delicious apple This yellow to yellow-green apple has a sweet, rather bland flavor and juicy, crisp flesh that resists browning. Golden Delicious apples have a long season, usually from September to early June. They're a fairly good all-purpose apple though they do tend to lose some flavor when cooked. See also  APPLE; RED DELICIOUS APPLE.
golden mushroom see  ENOKI
golden needles see  TIGER LILY BUDS
golden nugget squash A small (3 to 4 inches in diameter), pumpkin-shaped winter squash with a bright orange skin. The flesh, which is also orange, is sweet and slightly bland. Golden nugget squash is available from late summer through winter. Choose a squash that's heavy for its size. The skin should be colorful but have a dull finish (the latter indicates maturity). If the surface is shiny, the flesh will be flavorless. Golden nugget squash can be stored at room temperature for up to a month. It can be baked or steamed, either whole or halved. See also  SQUASH.
golden oak see  SHIITAKE
golden syrup Particularly popular in England (where it's also known as light  TREACLE), this liquid sweetener has the consistency of CORN SYRUP and a clear golden color. It's made from evaporated sugar cane juice and has a rich, toasty flavor unmatched by any other sweetener. Golden syrup, the most readily available brand being Lyle's , can be found in some supermarkets and many gourmet markets. It can be used as a substitute for corn syrup in cooking and baking, and for everything from pancake syrup to ice cream topping.
gold leaf see  VARAK
Goldwasser [GOLT-vahs-sehr, GOLD-vahs-sehr] Also called Danziger Goldwasser , this full-bodied LIQUEUR is flavored with caraway seed, orange peel and spices. Its name, which translates from German as "gold water," comes from the fact that it has minuscule flecks of gold leaf suspended in it. The gold leaf is harmless to drink.
gomashio [goh-MAH-shee-oh] Available in health-food stores and some Asian markets, gomashio is a seasoning composed of sea salt and toasted sesame seeds. See also  GOMA.
goo; gou see  GASPERGOO
goober A derivative of the African word nguba , "goober" is a southern U.S. name for peanut. It's also referred to as a "goober pea."
goose Any of many species of large, web-footed, wild or domestic birds. Geese are much larger than ducks, weighing from 5 to 18 pounds, compared to 3 to 5 1/2 pounds for a duck. The female of the species is simply known as a goose , a male as a gander , and a young goose — of whichever sex — as a gosling . Geese were bred in ancient Egypt, China and India. The Romans revered them because it was a noisy gaggle of geese that alerted 4th-century b.c. Romans that the enemy Gauls were about to attack. Geese are immensely popular in Europe, where they're traditional Christmas holiday fare in many countries. They're also renowned for two French specialties — FOIE GRAS, the creamy-rich enlarged liver from force-fed geese, and CONFIT, goose cooked and preserved in its own fat. Because geese are so fatty, they have not achieved the same popularity in America and therefore, though they're domesticated, have never been mass-marketed. The U.S. government grades the quality of geese with USDA classifications A, B and C. The highest grade is A, and is generally what is found in markets. Grade B geese are less meaty and well finished; those that are grade C are not usually available to the consumer. The grade stamp can usually be found within a shield on the package wrapping. Most geese marketed in the United States are frozen and can be purchased throughout the year. A frozen bird's packaging should be tight and unbroken. The goose should be thawed in the refrigerator and can take up to 2 days to defrost, depending on the size of the bird. Do not refreeze goose once it's been thawed. Fresh geese can be found in some specialty markets and are available from early summer through December. When available, buy goslings (the smaller the better) because they are the most tender. One way to determine age is to check the goose's bill; if it's pliable, the bird is still young. Choose a goose that is plump, with a good fatty layer and skin that is clean and unblemished. Store loosely covered in the coldest section of the refrigerator 2 to 3 days. Remove and store separately any giblets in the body cavity. Because geese have so much fat, they are best roasted. Larger, older birds are tougher and therefore should be cooked using a moist-heat method, such as braising. The fat derived from roasting a goose is prized by many cooks as a cooking fat. Goose benefits from being served with a tart fruit sauce, which helps offset any fatty taste. Geese are high in calories but are a good source of protein and iron. See also  GAME BIRDS.
gooseberry These large, tart berries grow on bushes and come in many varieties including green, white, yellow and red; their skins can be smooth or fuzzy. Though they're rather rare in the United States, they flourish in northern Europe. Gooseberries are in season during the summer months. If you can find them fresh, choose those that are fairly firm and evenly colored. Canned gooseberries (usually the green variety) are available year-round. Gooseberries make excellent jams, jellies, pies and the dessert for which they're duly famous, FOOL.
goosefish see  ANGLER
goose liver see  FOIE GRAS
gordita [gohr-DEE-tah] Spanish for "little fat one," a gordita is a thick (about 1/4 inch) tortilla made of MASA, lard and water or stock and sometimes mashed potatoes. These flat cakes are first partially baked on both sides on a dry COMAL (griddle) just until the masa is set. When cool enough to handle, the edges of the gordita are pinched slightly so that about a 1/4-inch ridge is formed all around the perimeter. The cake is then fried in about 1/2 inch of oil. The fried gordita is then filled with ground pork or CHORIZO and topped variously with cheese, shredded lettuce, onion, etc.
Gorgonzola cheese [gohr-guhn-ZOH-lah] Named for a town outside Milan where it was originally made, Gorgonzola is one of Italy's great cheeses. It has an ivory-colored interior that can be lightly or thickly streaked with bluish-green veins. This cow's-milk cheese is rich and creamy with a savory, slightly pungent flavor. When aged over 6 months, the flavor and aroma can be quite strong — sometimes downright stinky. The cheese usually comes in foil-wrapped wedges cut from medium-size wheels. Gorgonzola is a perfect accompaniment for pears, apples and peaches, and pairs nicely with hearty red wines. It's delicious when melted over potatoes or crumbled in salads. See also  CHEESE.
Gorgonzola dolce see  DOLCELATTE CHEESE
gorp Eaten as a snack, this dry mixture consists of a combination of foods, usually nuts, seeds, raisins or other dried fruit and oats. It's particularly favored by hikers and campers as an energy booster.
Gouda cheese [GOO-dah, Du. , KHOW-dah] Holland's most famous exported cheese is Gouda, with its characteristic yellow interior dotted with a few tiny holes. It has a mild, nutlike flavor that is very similar to EDAM, but its texture is slightly creamier due to its higher milk fat content (about 48 percent compared to Edam's 40 percent). Gouda can be made from whole or part-skim cow's milk, and aged anywhere from a few weeks to over a year. The younger the Gouda, the milder the flavor. When aged over a year, it takes on almost a cheddarlike flavor. It comes in large wheels ranging from 10 to 25 pounds, and usually has a yellow wax rind. Baby Gouda, which comes in rounds weighing no more than a pound, usually has a red wax coating. Some Goudas are flavored with CUMIN or herbs. Though Gouda is also made in the United States, the domestic version is rarely aged and is extremely mild-flavored. Gouda is particularly good with beer, red wines and dark bread. The Dutch make a dish called kaasdoop , a Gouda FONDUE served with potatoes and rye bread. See also  CHEESE.
gougère [goo-ZHAIR] GRUYÈRE-flavored CHOUX PASTRY that is piped into a ring shape before being baked. A gougère can be served hot or cold as an HORS D'OEUVRE or snack.
goulash [GOO-lahsh] Known as gulyás  in its native Hungary, goulash is a stew made with beef or other meat and vegetables and flavored with Hungarian PAPRIKA. It's sometimes garnished with dollops of sour cream and often served with buttered noodles.
gourd [GOHRD] The inedible fruit of any of various plants with an extremely hard, tough shell. When all the flesh is removed, the shell can be dried and used as a container, utensil or for decorative purposes.
Gourmandise cheese [goor-mahn-DEEZ] Flavored with cherry juice, this soft, creamy processed cheese has a mild, sweet flavor. It's usually sold in small cakes or wedges, sometimes with a chopped-nut coating. Gourmandise is delicious with fruit and as a snack with crackers. See also  CHEESE.
gourmet [goor-MAY] 1. One of discriminating palate; a connoisseur of fine food and drink. 2. Gourmet food is that which is of the highest quality, perfectly prepared and artfully presented. 3. A gourmet restaurant is one that serves well-prepared, high-quality food.
gowdie see  GURNARD
graham cracker This popular snack was touted as a health food in the 1830s by its creator, Rev. Sylvester Graham, a United States dietary reformer. It's a rectangular-shaped, whole-wheat cracker that has been sweetened, usually with honey. Graham-cracker crust is made from a mixture of finely crushed graham crackers, sugar and butter that is pressed into a pie pan. It's usually baked, but can simply be chilled before being filled.
graham flour Whole-wheat flour that is slightly coarser than regular grind. It was developed by Rev. Sylvester Graham, a Connecticut cleric, who was one of the early leaders in health food advocacy. See also  FLOUR.
grain see  CEREAL GRAINS
gram flour see  BESAN
grana [GRAH-nuh] The Italian word for "grain," referring to any of various very hard cheeses with a granular texture. Such cheeses, like Parmigiano-Reggiano, are particularly suited for grating. This special texture is the result of long aging, which is usually anywhere from 2 to 7 years, though some (rare) cheeses are ripened up to 20 years. See also  CHEESE; PARMESAN CHEESE.
granadilla [gran-ah-DEE-yuh] see  PASSION FRUIT
Grand Marnier [GRAN mahr-NYAY] A clear, dark golden, brandy-based French LIQUEUR flavored with orange peel.
granité [grah-nee-TAY, grah-nee-TAH] see  ICE
Granny Smith apple Most of these crisp, juicy apples are imported from New Zealand and Australia, though the United States now produces some, principally in California and Arizona. The Granny Smith's freckled green skin covers a sweetly tart flesh that's excellent for both out-of-hand eating and cooking. The imported crop arrives during summer, while those from the United States are available through the winter months, making the popular Granny Smith a year-round, all-purpose apple. See also  APPLE.
granola [gruh-NOH-luh] A breakfast food consisting of various combinations of grains (mainly oats), nuts and dried fruits. Some manufacturers toast their granola with oil and honey, giving it a crisp texture, sweet glaze and more calories. See also  MUESLI.
granulated sugar see  SUGAR
grape This edible berry grows in clusters on small shrubs or climbing vines in temperate zones throughout the world including Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe and North and South America. California is the largest U.S. producer of grapes — both for wine and for the table. There are thousands of grape varieties, each with its own particular use and charm. In general, grapes are smooth-skinned and juicy; they may have several seeds in the center or they may be seedless. There are "slip-skin" varieties, which have skins that slip easily off the berry — like a mitten being pulled off a hand — and those with skins that cling stubbornly to the flesh. Grapes are divided into color categories of white or black (also referred to as "red"). White grape varieties range in color from pale yellow-green to light green, and black grapes from light red to purple-black. They're also classified by the way they're used — whether for wine (such as CABERNET or RIESLING), table (like THOMPSON SEEDLESS or RIBIER) or commercial food production, such as MUSCAT grapes for raisins, ZANTE grapes for CURRANTS and CONCORD grapes for grape juice, jams and jellies. Wine grapes, for instance, have high acidity and are therefore too tart for general eating. Table grapes, with their low acid, would make dull, bland-tasting wines. The availability of table grapes depends on the variety. Buy grapes that are plump, full-colored and firmly attached to their stems. White (or green) grapes should have a slight pale yellow hue, a sign of ripeness. Dark grapes should be deeply colored, with no sign of green. In general, grapes should be stored, unwashed and in a plastic bag, in the refrigerator. They will keep for up to a week, though quality will diminish with time. Because most supermarket grapes have been sprayed with insecticide, they should be thoroughly washed and blotted dry with a paper towel just before eating or using. Ideally, grapes should be served at about 60°F, so it's best to remove them from the refrigerator about 30 minutes before serving. Table grapes can be used in salads, for pies and other desserts and of course for out-of-hand eating. Whole grapes are also available canned. Grape juice comes in cans or bottles; grape jelly, jam and preserves in jars. Fresh grapes contain small amounts of vitamin A and a variety of minerals. See also  CATAWBA; CHARDONNAY; CHENIN BLANC; DELAWARE; EMPEROR; FRENCH COLOMBARD; MERLOT; MUSCADINE; NIAGARA; PETITE SIRAH; PINOT BLANC; PINOT NOIR; SAUVIGNON; SÉMILLON; SULTANA; SYLVANER; TOKAY; ZINFANDEL.
grapefruit This tropical citrus fruit grows in great abundance in Arizona, California, Florida and Texas. Its name comes from the fact that the grapefruit grows in grapelike clusters. There are two main categories of grapefruit — seeded and seedless. They're also broken into color classifications — white, which has a yellowish-white flesh, and pink, the flesh of which can range from pale yellow-pink to brilliant ruby red. Pink grapefruit has a higher amount of vitamin A than does the white. The skins of all varieties of grapefruit are yellow, some with a pink blush. Fresh grapefruit is available year-round — those from Arizona and California are in the market from about January through August; Florida and Texas grapefruits usually arrive around October and last through June. Choose grapefruit that have thin, fine-textured, brightly colored skin. They should be firm yet springy when held in the palm and pressed. The heavier they are for their size, the juicier they'll be. Do not store grapefruit at room temperature for more than a day or two. They keep best (up to 2 weeks) when wrapped in a plastic bag and placed in the vegetable drawer of the refrigerator. Grapefruit is usually eaten fresh, either halved or segmented and used in salads. It can also be sprinkled with brown sugar and broiled. Canned and frozen forms of grapefruit are available in segments or juice. Grapefruit is a good source of vitamin C.
grape leaves The large green leaves of the grapevine are often used by Greek and Middle Eastern cooks to wrap foods for cooking, as with DOLMAS. Grape leaves are not usually commercially available fresh so, unless you have a grapevine in your backyard, you'll probably have to buy canned grape leaves packed in brine. They should be rinsed before using to remove some of the salty flavor. Fresh grape leaves must be simmered in water for about 10 minutes to soften them enough to be pliable. In addition to wrapping foods, grape leaves can be used as decorations or garnishes, or in salads. Also called vine leaves .
grapeseed oil Extracted from grape seeds, most of this oil comes from France, Italy or Switzerland, with a few sources now in the United States. Some grapeseed oils have a light "grapey" flavor and fragrance but most imported into the United States are on the bland side. Grapeseed oil can be used for salad dressings and, because it has a relatively high SMOKE POINT, it's also good for sautéing. It may be stored at room temperature (70°F or under) or in the refrigerator. Grapeseed oil is available in gourmet food stores and some supermarkets. See also  FATS AND OILS.
grape sugar see  DEXTROSE
grappa [GRAHP-pah] A colorless, high alcohol Italian EAU DE VIE distilled from the residue (grape skins and seeds) left in the wine press after the juice is removed for wine. Grappa has been made commercially since the 18th century. There are hundreds of highly individual, markedly different styles of this fiery distillation, which can also have great depth and character. There are also aged grappas, some so complex that they're aged in a series of different woods (such as oak, birch and juniper).
gulyás see  GOULASH
gum arabic A natural additive obtained from the bark of certain varieties of acacia tree. Gum arabic is colorless, tasteless and odorless and is used in commercial food processing to thicken, emulsify and stabilize foods such as candy, ice cream and sweet syrups. See also  GUM TRAGACANTH; GUAR GUM; XANTHAM GUM.
gumbo [GUHM-boh] This CREOLE specialty is a mainstay of New Orleans cuisine. It's a thick, stewlike dish that can have any of many ingredients, including vegetables such as okra, tomatoes and onions, and one or several meats or shellfish such as chicken, sausage, ham, shrimp, crab or oysters. The one thing all good gumbos begin with is a dark ROUX, which adds an unmistakable, incomparably rich flavor. Okra serves to thicken the mixture, as does FILÉ POWDER, which must be stirred in just before serving after the pot's off the fire. The famous gumbo z'herbes  ("with herbs") was once traditionally served on Good Friday and contains at least seven greens (for good luck) such as spinach, mustard greens, collard greens and so on. The name gumbo is a derivation of the African word for "okra."
gum tragacanth [TRAG-uh-kanth] A substance obtained from an Asian shrub, Astragalus gummifer , and used in the same way as GUM ARABIC. See also  GUAR GUM; XANTHAN GUM.
gunpowder tea This fine Chinese tea is considered the highest grade of green tea and is noted for both its form and its flavor. The small, young tea leaves are rolled into minuscule balls, giving the tea a granular appearance. Gunpowder tea is light in color, with a distinctively sharp flavor. See also  TEA.
gur [GOOR] see  JAGGERY
gurnard [GER-nuhrd] The common English name for fish belonging to the family Triglidae . These marine fish, which sometimes swim near the surface and make a grunting or croaking noise, are also called crooner , croonack , gowdie , and in North America sea robin . They also have fins that allow them to crawl around on the ocean bottom. Most of the species used for food are found in warmer waters in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, although there are a few gunard species in the Pacific. The gunard's flesh is white, firm and lowfat, which makes it appropriate for frying, baking or poaching. See also  FISH.
gurnet see  GURNARD
gweduck see  GEODUCK
gyoza [gee-OH-zah] Japanese equivalent of a POT STICKER.
gyro [JEER-oh, ZHEER-oh, Gk. , YEE-roh] A Greek specialty consisting of minced lamb that is molded around a spit and vertically roasted. The meat is usually sliced, enfolded in a PITA and topped with grilled onions, sweet peppers and a cucumber-yogurt sauce.
© The Residential Chef 2019