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Term Pronounciation Definition
ice n.  Called granité  in France and granita  in Italy, an ice is a frozen mixture of water, sugar and liquid flavoring such as fruit juice, wine or coffee. The proportion is usually 4 parts liquid to 1 part sugar. During the freezing process, ices are generally stirred frequently to produce a slightly granular final texture. ice v.  1. To chill a food, glass or serving dish in order to get it icy cold and sometimes coated with frost. 2. To spread frosting over the surface of a cake.
iceberg lettuce see  CRISPHEAD LETTUCE
icebox cookie see  REFRIGERATOR COOKIE
ice cream America's favorite dessert is thought to have originated in the mountains of ancient China, with snow probably used as the base. Today's ice cream is made with a combination of milk products (usually cream combined with fresh, condensed or dry milk), a sweetening agent (sugar, honey, corn syrup or artificial sweetener) and sometimes solid additions such as pieces of chocolate, nuts, fruit and so on. According to FDA regulations, ice creams with solid additions must contain a minimum of 8 percent milk fat, while plain ice creams must have at least 10 percent milk fat. French ice cream has a cooked egg-custard base. Ice milk is made in much the same way as ice cream, except for the fact that it contains less milk fat and milk solids. The result, other than a lowered calorie count, is a lighter, less creamy texture. Commercial ice creams usually contain stabilizers to improve both texture and body, and to help make them melt resistant. Many also contain artificial coloring. Those made with natural flavorings (for instance, chocolate) will be labeled simply "Chocolate Ice Cream." If the majority of the flavoring is natural with a boost from an artificial-flavor source, the label will read "Chocolate-Flavored Ice Cream"; if over 50 percent of the flavoring is artificial it will read "Artificial Chocolate Ice Cream." All commercial ice creams have "overrun," a term applied to the amount of air they contain. The percentage of overrun ranges from 0 (no air) to 200, a theoretical figure that would be all air. The legal overrun limit for ice cream is 100 percent, which would amount to half air. Ice cream needs some air or it would be rock-hard. But one with 100 percent overrun would have so little body that it would feel mushy in the mouth; it would also melt extremely fast. An ice cream with the more desirable proportion of 20 to 50 percent overrun (10 to 25 percent air) would be denser, creamier and eminently more satisfying. Since the overrun is not listed on the package, the only way to be absolutely sure is to weigh the carton. Ice cream with a 50 percent overrun (25 percent air) will weigh about 18 ounces per pint (subtract about 1 1/2 ounces for the weight of the container). The weight of the ice cream will be proportionately higher with a lower percentage of overrun. During storage, ice cream has a tendency to absorb other food odors and to form ice crystals. For that reason, it's best not to freeze it for more than 2 to 3 days. Sealing the carton airtight in a plastic bag will extend storage life up to a week. Ice cream is used for a plethora of delicious treats including BAKED ALASKAS, BANANA SPLITS and ice-cream bars, sandwiches and cakes (cake layered with ice cream and frozen). See also  GELATO; ICE; SHERBET.
ice-cream makers Generally speaking, there are two basic styles of ice-cream maker — manual and electric. They can be simple or fancy and can cost from $25 to almost $1,000. In addition to ice cream, they can be used to make ice milk, frozen yogurt and frozen drinks. All of them work on the same principle — a canister with a central, vertical paddle (called a dasher) is placed inside a container that holds the freezing agent — either ice and salt, a chemical coolant or an electric refrigeration unit. The inner canister is filled with an ice-cream mixture that the dasher stirs (gently scraping the sides of the canister) when rotated. This stirring action aerates the mixture and keeps it smooth by preventing ice crystals from forming while it freezes. There are several different kinds of ice-cream freezers. Among the manual-style ice-cream makers are the old-fashioned, wooden buckets with a metal inner container for the ice-cream mixture. They require ice, rock SALT (which lowers the temperature of the ice) and plenty of physical stamina to turn the crank that rotates the dasher. They usually take 30 to 40 minutes to make 4 to 6 quarts of ice cream. Some of these wooden bucket-style makers have an electric motor that sits on top of the unit, saving manpower. A newer form of manual ice-cream maker is the prechilled chamber freezer , which ranges in size from 1 pint to 1 1/2 quarts. The container is placed in the freezer for 24 to 48 hours to freeze the coolant sealed between the walls lining this unit. The ice-cream mixture is poured into the center cavity; a crank-and-dasher assembly and lid covers the entire unit. The hand-rotated crank is turned once every 2 to 3 minutes for 15 to 30 minutes, depending on the amount of ice cream being made. Electric ice-cream machines are all equipped with electric motors that rotate either the ice-cream canister or the dasher. There are several different styles and sizes of electric ice-cream machines. The most common is the self-contained countertop unit  that uses refrigerator ice cubes and table salt, and in which the motor turns the canister. This type can make up to 2 quarts of ice cream. There is also a small freezer unit  (averaging 1 quart) that doesn't require salt or ice but instead is placed in the freezer compartment of the refrigerator with the electric cord exiting between the freezer's seal and the closed door. In this type, the dasher is motor-turned, while the canister is stationary. The Rolls-Royce of electric ice-cream freezers is the large, self-contained countertop machine  that has the freezing unit built into it. All that's required for this expensive pleaser is to pour the ice-cream mixture into the canister and flick a button.
ice-cream scoop A utensil used to remove ice cream from a carton or other container while forming the ice cream into a ball or oval shape. Ice-cream scoops come in several styles and sizes. The simplest is a plain metal scoop- or spade-shaped utensil. Next comes one shaped like a half-globe or oval with a spring-action lever in the handle. When squeezed, the lever moves an arc-shaped blade across the scoop's interior and ejects the ice-cream ball. The nonstick-style scoop has antifreeze sealed inside. This model is especially helpful for extremely hard ice cream. Scoops come in many sizes, from tiny to large (about 1 to almost 3 inches in diameter).
ice, dry see  DRY ICE
ice milk see  ICE CREAM
ice wine A rich, flavorful DESSERT WINE, which is made by picking grapes that are frozen on the vine, then pressing them before they thaw. Because much of the water in the grapes is frozen, the resulting juice is concentrated — rich in flavor and high in sugar and acid. Ice wines are renowned in Germany, where they're called Eiswein  (pronounced ICE-vine).
ichimi [ee-CHEE-mee] see  TOGARASHI
icing see  FROSTING
icing sugar The British name for CONFECTIONERS' SUGAR.
Idaho potato The Idaho is considered by many to be the best variety of America's most popular potato for baking, the russet. Though some russets grown elsewhere are commonly called Idaho potatoes , many Idaho government officials are pushing to make the name exclusive to spuds grown in local soil. See also  POTATO.
immersion blender This handheld BLENDER is tall, narrow and has a rotary blade at one end. It has variable speeds, is entirely portable and may be immersed right into a pot of soup (or other mixture) to puree or chop the contents. Many immersion blenders come with a whisk attachment (good for whipping cream), and other accoutrements such as strainers or beakers for mixing individual drinks. Some also come with wall mounts.
impératrice, à l' see  RIZ À L'IMPÉRATRICE
Imperial see  WINE BOTTLES
incomplete protein see  COMPLETE PROTEIN
Indian date see  TAMARIND
Indian nut see  PINE NUT
Indian pudding This hearty, old-fashioned dessert originated in New England. It's a spicy, cornmeal-molasses baked pudding that can sometimes include sliced apples. Indian pudding is usually served with whipped cream, HARD SAUCE or ice cream.
Indian rice Another name for WILD RICE.
indienne, à l' [ah lahn-DYEHN] A French term describing Indian-style dishes flavored with curry and served with rice.
induction cooking A technology whereby cookware is heated using magnetic energy. It requires a special smooth ceramic cooktop with induction energy coils directly beneath the surface. These coils produce high-frequency alternating current from regular low-voltage direct current. When cookware made of a magnetic-based material is placed on this special stovetop, the molecules in the vessel begin to move so rapidly that the pan (not the stovetop) becomes hot. Removing the pan from the cooking surface produces an immediate slowdown of the gyrating molecules, which means the pan begins to cool. This gives a cook immense control over what's being heated. Although most steel- and cast-iron-based vessels work well, those made of aluminum, copper and some stainless steel can't be used on an induction cooktop because they aren't magnetic. Special pans designed for induction cooking are available but, before making a purchase, first try a simple test on your cookware: if a magnet sticks to its surface, the pan is suitable. In addition to an induction stovetop's obvious advantages of heat control, safety, and energy efficiency, its smooth surface makes it a snap to clean.
infuser see  TEA INFUSER
infusion [ihn-FYOO-zhuhn] An infusion is the flavor that's extracted from an ingredient such as tea leaves, herbs or fruit by STEEPING them in a liquid (usually hot), such as water, for tea. In today's culinary parlance, sauces that have been variously flavored (as with herbs) are also called infusions.
insalata [ihn-sah-LAH-tah] The Italian word for "salad," with insalata mista  being a "mixed salad" and insalata verde  referring to a salad of tossed greens.
instant cocoa see  COCOA MIX
instant flour see  FLOUR
invert sugar Invert sugar is created by combining a SUGAR SYRUP with a small amount of acid (such as CREAM OF TARTAR or lemon juice) and heating. This inverts, or breaks down, the SUCROSE into its two components, GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE, thereby reducing the size of the sugar crystals. Because of its fine crystal structure, invert sugar produces a smoother product and is used in making candies such as fondant, and some syrups. The process of making jams and jellies automatically produces invert sugar by combining the natural acid in the fruit with granulated sugar and heating the mixture. Invert sugar can usually be found in jars in cake-decorating supply shops.
iriko [ee-REE-koh] see  SEA CUCUMBER
Irish breakfast tea A strong, robust black-tea blend that includes the superior CEYLON TEA. See also  TEA.
Irish coffee Guaranteed to warm the cockles of anyone's heart, this hot beverage blends strong coffee, IRISH WHISKEY and a small amount of sugar. It's usually served in a glass mug and topped by a dollop of whipped cream. See also  COFFEE.
Irish mist A LIQUEUR made from a blend of IRISH WHISKEY and heather honey.
Irish moss see  CARRAGEEN
Irish potato A round, white, thin-skinned potato whose origin is actually South America. It's good for boiling, frying and pan-roasting. See also  POTATO.
Irish soda bread This classic Irish QUICK BREAD uses baking soda (as the name implies) as its LEAVENER. It's usually made with buttermilk and is speckled with currants and caraway seed. Before baking, a cross is slashed in the top of the loaf. The purpose of the cross, legend says, is to scare away the devil.
Irish stew A traditional layered dish of equal parts seasoned lamb or mutton chops, potatoes and onions. Water or stock is poured over all, the pot is covered tightly and the stew is cooked slowly for 2 to 3 hours. It's best made the day before to allow the flavors to blend.
Irish whiskey Made in Ireland, this light, dry WHISKEY is distilled from a mash of fermented barley and other grains.
ironware Pots and pans made from iron or cast iron, both known for excellent heat conductivity. Modern-day ironware is either preseasoned or coated with a thick enamel glaze. The advantage of the enamel coating is the ease with which it cleans. Old-fashioned unseasoned iron pots and pans must be seasoned before using. See also  SEASON.
irradiation An FDA-approved process by which food is bombarded with low doses of high-frequency energy from gamma rays, X-rays or accelerated electrons. The purpose for this radiation is to extend shelf life by inhibiting maturation and decay through the elimination of microorganisms and insect invasion. Most foods processed with irradiation will last weeks instead of days. All irradiated foods must bear an international symbol — a plant within a broken circle. Exceptions to this rule are irradiated foods — such as spices and herbs — that are used as an ingredient in other food products. The jury is still out on the safety of irradiated foods. Of concern are potentially toxic elements that irradiation may produce in foods, as well as the possible long-term side effects of eating these treated products. Proponents suggest that irradiation serves as a substitute for many questionable chemicals and preservatives now used in food processing. Those foods currently approved by the FDA for irradiation treatment are: fruits, vegetables, dried spices, herbs, seasonings and teas, pork, white potatoes, wheat and wheat flours. Most food producers, however, have not taken advantage of that approval.
isinglass [I-zuhn-glas, I-zing-glas] Transparent and pure, this form of GELATIN comes from the air bladders of certain fish, especially the STURGEON. It was popular 100 years ago, particularly for making jellies and to CLARIFY wine. With the convenience of today's modern gelatin, isinglass is rarely used.
ita-kamaboko [EE-tah kah-mah-BOH-koh] see  KAMABOKO
Italian bread Almost identical to FRENCH BREAD, with the exception of its shape, which is shorter and plumper than the French BAGUETTE. The top of Italian bread is sometimes sprinkled with sesame seed.
Italian dandelion Although not a true DANDELION, this green looks almost identical to its namesake. The main difference is that the jagged-edged leaves are a deeper green and slightly larger. The Italian dandelion has a tangy, slightly bitter flavor. It can be cooked as well as used in salads. Refrigerate, tightly wrapped in a plastic bag, up to 5 days. Wash thoroughly just before using.
Italian dressing A salad dressing consisting of olive oil and wine vinegar or lemon juice, seasoned variously with ingredients including garlic, oregano, basil, dill and fennel.
Italian eggplant see  EGGPLANT
Italian meringue A creamy MERINGUE made by slowly beating hot SUGAR SYRUP into stiffly beaten egg whites. Because the sugar syrup is cooked to the SOFT-BALL STAGE, the resulting meringue becomes very dense, glossy and smooth. The same method is used to make BOILED ICING. Italian meringue is used in soufflés, to frost cakes and pastries and to top pies (in the last case it's usually lightly browned in the oven before serving).
Italian parsley see  PARSLEY
Italian sausage This favorite pizza topping is a coarse pork sausage, generally sold in plump links. Italian sausage is usually flavored with garlic and fennel seed or anise seed. It comes in two styles — hot (flavored with hot, red peppers) and sweet (without the added heat). It must be well cooked before serving, and is suitable for frying, grilling or braising. See also  SAUSAGE.
Izarra [ih-ZAHR-ruh] An herb-flavored LIQUEUR based on ARMAGNAC, Izarra is available in yellow and green varieties, the latter being the stronger of the two.
© The Residential Chef 2019