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Term Pronounciation Definition
label terms Thanks to new U.S. labeling laws effective in 1994, understanding food labels is much easier than it once was. The Federal Nutrition Labeling and Education Act regulations not only require that specific information appear on processed food labels, they also implement improvements in four basic areas: 1. package claims (which are now federally defined and regulated); 2. serving sizes, which must be comparable for similar foods; 3. referring to the % Daily Value  column quickly tells the consumer the percentage of a particular nutrient in the food; 4. by consulting the Daily Values, consumers can determine how much (or how little) of the major nutrients they should eat on a daily basis. When checking the ingredients on packaged food, remember that most labels list ingredients in descending order by weight , not by amount . For example, a cereal with four ingredients, of which sugar is the third listed, most likely contains a small percentage of sugar. Labels must now include the total amount of fat , saturated fat  and unsaturated fat  (see  FATS AND OILS), although detailing the various types of the latter is optional. Be warned, however, that there's currently a major information gap in this labeling scheme because TRANS FATTY ACIDS (essentially unsaturated fat that's been transformed into saturated fat through hydrogenation), which may be part of the total fat listed, won't be classified as "saturated." Add the amount of saturated fat and unsaturated fat together — if it doesn't equal the figure for total fat, the difference can most likely be attributed to trans fatty acids, which essentially translates to saturated fat. Following are many terms found on food labels. Low fat means the amount of fat per serving (or per 100 grams of food) is 3 grams or less; the phrase "90 (or other number ) percent fat free" may only be used for low fat products. Reduced fat means the product contains 50 percent (or less) of the fat found in the product's regular version; reduced saturated fat is the same, but only in reference to saturated fat. Low in saturated fat means each serving contains 1 gram (or less) of saturated fat, and the number of calories from that source are not more than 15 percent of the total. Fat free indicates the product has less than 1/2 gram of fat per serving, providing there are no added fat or oil ingredients. Reduced cholesterol tells you the product contains 50 percent (or less) of the cholesterol found in the product's regular version. Low in cholesterol means the cholesterol per serving (or per 100 grams of food) is 20 milligrams or less, and that the saturated fat is 2 grams or less. Cholesterol free means the product (per serving) contains less than 2 milligrams of cholesterol and 2 grams (or less) of saturated fat. Reduced sodium signals at least 75 percent less sodium; low sodium means 140 milligrams or less per serving; very low sodium — 35 milligrams sodium per serving; sodium free — less than 5 milligrams per serving. Reduced calorie on a label means there are at least one-third fewer calories than in the product's regular form; low calorie indicates 40 calories or less per serving, and less than 0.4 calories per gram of food. No sugar added means there's no table sugar, but there may be other forms of sugar such as CORN SYRUP, DEXTROSE, FRUCTOSE, GLUCOSE, MALTOSE or SUCROSE. Light (or lite) is a virtually meaningless term used in a variety of ways by individual manufacturers. According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the only parameter for this term is that it must contain "less of something," which means that it can refer to reduced calories, a lighter color or flavor (as with some oils), a fluffy (lighter) texture, or reduced fat, sugar, alcohol, etc. According to the FDA, the words natural flavorings refer to those that are "derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or similar plant material, meat, seafood, poultry, egg, dairy product . . . whose significant function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional." Be aware, however, that those broad parameters include ingredients like hydrolyzed protein and HVP, both of which contain MSG. The FDA has no set definition for the word natural. However, although there's no true consistency among manufacturers, the term generally means that the product has no artificial ingredients or intentional  additives (although many "natural" foods are full of sugar, fat and preservatives). When the word "natural" is applied to meat or poultry, it generally means the product is minimally processed and free of artificial ingredients. Organic is another term that is often used without qualification, although in some states it refers to the fact that crops are pesticide free and that animal feed and water is sans chemicals. Enriched products are those that have lost nutrients during processing, then had them approximately replaced by enrichment. White flour, for example, loses 50 to 80 percent of many nutrients during processing, but then has some of them replaced. Fortified on a label (as with a breakfast cereal) tells you that nutrients have been added that weren't in the original ingredients. RDA stands for "Recommended Dietary Allowance," the government-recommended daily amounts of protein, vitamins and minerals for healthy adults. Such amounts are ballpark figures and may vary slightly according to gender, conditions such as pregnancy, etc. See also  ADDITIVES.
lactic acid [LAK-tihk] A bitter-tasting acid that forms when certain bacteria combine with LACTOSE (milk sugar). Lactic acid is used to impart a tart flavor, as well as in the preservation of some foods. It occurs naturally in the souring of milk and can be found in foods such as cheese and yogurt. It's also used in the production of acid-fermented foods such as pickles and SAUERKRAUT.
lactose [LAK-tohs] This sugar occurs naturally in milk and is also called milk sugar.  It's the least sweet of all the natural sugars and is used commercially in foods such as baby formulas and candies.
lady apple A tiny apple that can range in color from brilliant red to yellow with generous red blushing. Its flesh is sweet-tart and it can be eaten raw or cooked. Fresh lady apples are available during the winter months. They're also available canned, and are widely used for garnishing purposes. See also  APPLE.
Lady Baltimore cake A moist, three-layered white cake with a succulent filling of raisins, nuts and sometimes other fruit such as figs. The cake is covered with a fluffy white frosting such as BOILED ICING. It was first mentioned by novelist Owen Wister in his 1906 novel, Lady Baltimore . Legend has it that a young woman gave Wister such a cake, which he later chronicled in his novel. See also  LORD BALTIMORE CAKE.
ladyfinger A light, delicate sponge cake roughly shaped like a rather large, fat finger. It's used as an accompaniment to ice cream, puddings and other desserts. Ladyfingers are also employed as an integral part of some desserts, such as CHARLOTTES. Ladyfingers can be made at home or purchased in bakeries or supermarkets.
lager [LAH-guhr] Beer that is stored in its cask or vat until free of sediment and crystal clear. It's a light, bubbly, golden brew that ranks as America's most popular. See also  BEER.
lagniappe; lagnappe [lan-YAP, LAN-yap] Used primarily in southern Louisiana and southeast Texas, the word lagniappe  refers to an "unexpected something extra." It could be an additional doughnut (as in "baker's dozen"), a free "one for the road" drink, an unanticipated tip for someone who provides a special service or possibly a complimentary dessert for a regular customer.
lahvosh; lavosh [LAH-vohsh] A round, thin, crisp bread that's also known as Armenian cracker bread . It comes in a soft version, as well as in various sizes, ranging from about 6 to 14 inches in diameter. Lahvosh is available in Middle Eastern markets and most supermarkets. It's the bread used to make the popular ARAM SANDWICH.
lait [LAY] French for "milk," such as in CAFÉ AU LAIT, which is "coffee with milk."
lake trout see  CHAR
lamb A sheep less than 1 year old, known for its tender meat. Baby lamb and spring lamb are both milk fed. Baby lamb is customarily slaughtered at between 6 and 8 weeks old. Spring lamb is usually 3 to 5 months old; regular lamb is slaughtered under a year of age. Lamb between 12 and 24 months is called yearling; when over 2 years, it's referred to as mutton and has a much stronger flavor and less tender flesh. There are five USDA grades for lamb based on proportion of fat to lean. Beginning with the best, they are Prime, Choice, Good, Utility  and Cull . When purchasing lamb, let color be the guide. In general, the darker the color, the older the animal. Baby lamb will be pale pink, while regular lamb is pinkish-red. Lamb can be purchased ground and in STEAKS, CHOPS and ROASTS. Lamb VARIETY MEATS can also be purchased. Refrigerate ground and small lamb cuts loosely wrapped for up to 3 days. Roasts can be stored up to 5 days. Ground lamb can be freezer-wrapped and frozen up to 3 months, solid cuts up to 6 months.
Lambert cherry A sweet cherry variety that's large, round and a deep ruby red. The flesh is sweet, firm and meaty. A superior cherry for out-of-hand eating as well as cooking. See also  CHERRY.
lambrusco [lam-BROOS-koh] An Italian wine that comes in three versions — red, white and rosé. The style best known by Americans is the pale red, semisweet, slightly effervescent Lambrusco. All three variations are made in both semisweet and DRY styles, the latter being preferred in Italy. Lambrusco wines are not known for their aging capabilities and should be drunk young.
lamb's lettuce see  CORN SALAD
lamprey [LAM-pree] Varieties of this long (about 21 inches), EEL-shaped fish are found in both fresh and marine waters. It has a delicately flavored but extremely fatty flesh, which makes it indigestible for many people. Lamprey can be cooked whole (if small to medium) or in pieces. It's usually braised in wine, but is suitable for other manners of cooking such as baking or sautéing. See also  FISH.
Lancashire cheese [LANG-kuh-sheer, LANG-kuh-shuhr] Made in Lancashire, England, this white cheese can range from soft to semifirm depending on how long it's aged. When young, the flavor is mild yet tangy. It becomes stronger and richer in flavor as it matures. Lancashire melts beautifully and is a favorite cheese for WELSH RABBIT. See also  CHEESE.
Lancashire hot pot see  HOTCHPOTCH
Lane cake Particularly popular throughout the South, this white or yellow cake is layered with a mixture of coconut, nuts and dried fruits and covered with a fluffy white frosting. Lane cake is said to have originated in Clayton, Alabama, when its creator, Emma Rylander Lane, won a prize for it in the state fair.
langostino [lahn-goh-STEEN-oh] The Spanish word for "PRAWN."
langouste [lahn-GOOST] The French word for "spiny LOBSTER."
langoustine [lahn-goo-STEEN] The French word for "PRAWN."
langues-de-chat [lawn , g-duh-CHAH] see  CATS' TONGUES
Laos; Laos ginger see  GALANGAL
lapin [la-PAHN ] The French word for "RABBIT."
Lapsang Souchong [LAP-sang SOO-shawng] This famous black tea hails from China's Fukian province and is noted for its distinctive smoky essence. See also  TEA.
lear oil see  CANOLA OIL
leather see  FRUIT LEATHER
leaven To add a leavening agent to a mixture such as a batter or dough in order to make it rise. See also  AMMONIUM BICARBONATE; BAKING POWDER; BAKING SODA; EGGS; YEAST.
leavener; leavening agent [LEHV-uhn-er] Agents that are used to lighten the texture and increase the volume of baked goods such as breads, cakes and cookies. Baking powder, baking soda and yeast are the most common leaveners used today. When mixed with a liquid they form carbon dioxide gas bubbles, which cause a batter or dough to rise during (and sometimes before) the baking process. Some foods, such as ANGEL FOOD CAKE and SPONGE CAKE, are leavened by the air beaten into egg whites. When heated, the egg whites cook and set, trapping the air inside and creating a light, airy cake.
leberkäse sausage [LAY-buhr-kah-suh] This smooth, delicate pork PÂTÉ is made with onion, garlic and eggs. The tubular sausage is cut into thick slices and either steamed or gently sautéed. Leberkäse  (German for "liver cheese") is served warm or at room temperature. It's delicious with rye bread and mustard. See also  SAUSAGE.
lebkuchen [LAYB-koo-kuhn] This thick, cakelike cookie is a specialty of Nuremberg and one of the most popular in Germany. It's honey-sweetened, full of spices, CITRON and almonds and often topped with a hard confectioners' sugar glaze. Lebkuchen has been made for centuries and is often baked in decorative molds to shape the cookie into intricate designs. See also  COOKIE.
leche [LEH-cheh, LAY-chay] The Spanish word for "milk."
lecithin [LEHS-uh-thihn] A fatty substance obtained from egg yolks and LEGUMES, used to preserve, emulsify and moisturize food. Lecithin-vegetable oil sprays (available in every supermarket) can be used instead of high-calorie oils for greasing pans and sautéing foods.
leckerle; leckerli [LEH-kehr-lee] This popular Swiss cookie comes in two versions — one made with honey, one with ground almonds. Both are chewy and delicious. The dough is traditionally pressed into special wooden molds, which imprint designs on the surface of the cookies.
leek Native to the Mediterranean countries, the leek has been prized by gourmets for thousands of years. Nero believed leeks would improve his singing voice and is said to have eaten prodigious quantities to that end. In the sixth century A.D., the Welsh made leeks their national symbol because they were convinced that the leeks they wore on their helmets to distinguish them from their enemies strengthened them and helped them win wars. Leeks still hold a flavorful spotlight in today's cuisine. Looking like a giant SCALLION, the leek is related to both the garlic and the onion, though its flavor and fragrance are milder and more subtle. It has a thick, white stalk that's cylindrical in shape and has a slightly bulbous root end. The broad, flat, dark green leaves wrap tightly around each other like a rolled newspaper. Leeks are available year-round in most regions. Choose those with crisp, brightly colored leaves and an unblemished white portion. Avoid any with withered or yellow-spotted leaves. The smaller the leek, the more tender it will be. Refrigerate leeks in a plastic bag up to 5 days. Before using, trim rootlets and leaf ends. Slit the leeks from top to bottom and wash thoroughly to remove all the dirt trapped between the leaf layers. Leeks can be cooked whole as a vegetable or chopped and used in salads, soups and a multitude of other dishes.
lees [LEEZ] The sediment (dregs) of wine or liquor that occurs during fermentation and aging.
legume [lehg-YOOM] Any of thousands of plant species that have seed pods that split along both sides when ripe. Some of the more common legumes used for human consumption are BEANS, LENTILS, PEANUTS, PEAS and SOYBEANS. Others, such as clover and alfalfa, are used as animal fodder. When the seeds of a legume are dried, they're referred to as PULSES. The high-protein legumes are a staple throughout the world. They contain some vitamin B, carbohydrates, fats and minerals. See also  BLACK-EYED PEA; CHICKPEA; ENGLISH PEA; FIELD PEA; SOYBEAN; WINGED BEAN; YARD-LONG BEAN.
Leicester cheese [LESS-ter] This orangy-red, cow's-milk cheese resembles CHEDDAR but has a higher moisture content. Its crumbly texture makes slicing difficult but facilitates grating. The flavor is mellow with a tangy aftertaste. Leicester melts beautifully, which makes it perfect for dishes such as WELSH RABBIT. It's also good for snacks and makes a mild accompaniment for fruit. See also  CHEESE.
lekvar [LEHK-vahr] A thick, soft spread made of fruit (usually prunes or apricots) cooked with sugar. This Hungarian specialty is used to fill a variety of pastries and cookies. Lekvar can be purchased in cans or jars in most supermarkets.
Liptauer cheese [LIHP-tow-er] Hailing from and named after a province in Hungary, Liptauer contains about 45 percent fat and is made from sheep's milk. This soft, fresh cheese has a mild flavor that is commonly seasoned with herbs, onions, garlic and paprika (which turns it red). It's a delicious snack cheese, which, depending on the flavoring, can go nicely with anything from beer to white wine. Though in Hungary the cheese itself is referred to as "Liptauer," those in German-speaking countries use the same word to describe the cheese when mixed with flavorings. See also  CHEESE.
liqueur [lih-KUHR, lih-KYOOR] A sweet alcoholic beverage made from an INFUSION of flavoring ingredients (such as seeds, fruits, herbs, flowers, nuts or spices) and a spirit (such as BRANDY, RUM or WHISKEY). Essential oils and EXTRACTS are used to flavor many of today's liqueurs. Artificial flavorings make a lackluster contribution to the less expensive brands. Most commercial liqueurs are made with closely guarded secret formulas. Also called cordials  and ratafias , liqueurs are usually high in alcohol and range from 49 PROOF for CHERRY HEERING to 110 proof for green CHARTREUSE. The crème liqueurs (such as CRÈME DE MENTHE) are distinguished by being sweeter and more syrupy. Liqueurs were originally used (and some still are) as a digestive. They are now usually served after dinner but also play an important role in many cocktails. Liqueurs can also be used in cooking, particularly for desserts. See also  ABSINTHE; ADVOCAAT; AMARETTO; ANESONE; ANISETTE; BÉNÉDICTINE; CHÉRI-SUISSE; COINTREAU; CRÈME D'ABRICOTS; CRÈME D'AMANDE; CRÈME D'ANANAS; CRÈME DE BANANE; CRÈME DE CACAO; CRÈME DE CASSIS; CRÈME DE CERISE; CRÈME DE NOYAUX; CRÈME DE ROSE; CRÈME DE VIOLETTE; CURAÇAO; DRAMBUIE; EAU DE VIE; FRANGELICO; GALLIANO; GLAYVA; GOLDWASSER; GRAND MARNIER; HERBSAINT; IRISH MIST; IZARRA; KAHLÚA; KÜMMEL; MANDARINE LIQUEUR; MARASCHINO; MIDORI; OUZO; PERNOD; PRUNELLE; ROCK AND RYE; SABRA LIQUEUR; SAMBUCA; SLOE GIN; SOUTHERN COMFORT; STREGA; TÍA MARÍA; TRIPLE SEC.
liquor [LIH-kuhr] 1. A distilled, alcoholic beverage made from a fermented MASH of various ingredients including grains or other plants. WHISKEY, GIN, VODKA and RUM are among the most popular. See also  AQUAVIT; ARRACK; BOURBON; BRANDY; MALT LIQUOR; MESCAL; OKOLEHAO; SCOTCH WHISKY; TEQUILA. 2. An oyster's natural juices are referred to as its "liquor." 3. POT LIQUOR or pot likker refers to the liquid resulting from cooking meats or vegetables.
litchi; litchi nut; lychee [LEE-chee] One of China's cherished fruits for over 2,000 years, the small (1 to 2 inches in diameter) litchi has a rough, bright red shell. The creamy white flesh is juicy, smooth and delicately sweet. It surrounds a single seed. Native to Southeast Asia, the litchi is cultivated in subtropical regions including California, Florida and Hawaii. Fresh litchis are available from June to about mid-July. Choose those with brightly colored skins free of blemishes. Place in a plastic bag and refrigerate unshelled for up to a week. Shell, seed and eat plain or as part of a fruit salad or dessert. Canned and dried litchis are available year-round. When dried they're often referred to as litchi nuts  because they resemble a nut — the shell turns a dark reddish brown and the flesh becomes brown and crisp. They're eaten as a snack, much in the same way as nuts or candy.
littleneck clam Called littlenecks  on the East Coast and Pacific littlenecks  on the West Coast, these small, hard-shell clams have a shell diameter of less than 2 inches. They're usually reserved for eating ON THE HALF SHELL. See also  CLAM.
liver The largest and one of the most important organs, liver has immense nutritional value . . . providing, that is, that it comes from a fairly young animal. Because liver acts as a clearinghouse for substances that enter the body, it tends to store and absorb unwanted chemicals, medicines and hormones that an animal might be fed. Naturally, the older the animal the greater the accumulation of these unwanted substances, which, according to some, offset liver's nutritional value. For this very reason, many people choose the more expensive calf's liver over beef liver. There are several ways to distinguish between the two. The color of beef liver is reddish-brown, compared to the paler pinkish-brown of calf's liver. Liver from a mature animal also has a stronger odor and flavor than that from a youngster. Additionally, it will be less tender. Besides beef and calf's, the most common animal livers used in cookery are lamb, pork, poultry and goose, the latter used mainly to produce PÂTÉ DE FOIE GRAS. The strongest-flavored and least tender of the livers is pork, while poultry livers are the most mild and tender of the lot. All livers are usually available fresh — beef and chicken livers may also be purchased frozen (though the quality of frozen liver is considerably lower than that of fresh). While chicken livers are sold whole, most of those from other animals are marketed sliced. Look for liver that has a bright color and moist (not slick) surface. It should have a fresh, clean smell. Refrigerate loosely wrapped for no more than a day. Liver can be prepared in a variety of ways though quick sautéing is the most popular. It toughens quickly with overcooking. Liver is rich in iron, protein and vitamin A.
liverwurst [LIHV-uhr-wurst, LIHV-uhr-vursht] A broad term for "liver sausage" referring to well-seasoned, ready-to-eat sausage made from at least 30 percent pork liver mixed with pork or other meat. The texture of liverwurst can range from firm enough to slice to creamy-smooth and spreadable. It can be smoked or plain and comes in large links, loaves and slices. It's generally used for snacks and sandwiches and is especially suited to rye bread and crackers. See also  SAUSAGE; BRAUNSCHWEIGER — the most popular of the liverwursts.
liverwurst [LIHV-uhr-wurst, LIHV-uhr-vursht] A broad term for "liver sausage" referring to well-seasoned, ready-to-eat sausage made from at least 30 percent pork liver mixed with pork or other meat. The texture of liverwurst can range from firm enough to slice to creamy-smooth and spreadable. It can be smoked or plain and comes in large links, loaves and slices. It's generally used for snacks and sandwiches and is especially suited to rye bread and crackers. See also  SAUSAGE; BRAUNSCHWEIGER — the most popular of the liverwursts.
lobster Up until the end of the 19th century lobster was so plentiful that it was used for fish bait. Alas, with lobster's ever-increasing popularity (and price), those days are gone forever. This king of the CRUSTACEAN family has a jointed body and limbs covered with a hard shell. The most popular variety in the United States is the Maine lobster, also called American lobster . It has 5 pairs of legs, the first of which is in the form of large, heavy claws (which contain a good amount of meat). Maine lobsters are found off the Atlantic coast of the northern United States and Canada. They have a closely related European cousin that lives in Mediterranean and South African waters and along Europe's Atlantic coast. Spiny lobsters (commonly called rock lobsters ) are found in waters off Florida, Southern California, Mexico, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa. They're easily distinguished from the Maine lobster by the fact that all 10 of their legs are about the same size. Almost all of the meat is in the tail because the spiny lobster has no claws. That meat is firmer, stringier and not quite as sweet as that of the Maine lobster. Outside California and Florida, most of the spiny lobster meat sold in this country is in the form of frozen tails, usually labeled "rock lobster tails." Live lobsters have a mottled shell splotched with various colors, generally greenish blue and reddish brown. Their shell turns vivid red only after the lobster is cooked. Fresh lobsters are available year-round and are most economical during spring and summer. Female lobsters are prized by many for their delectable CORAL (eggs). Also considered a delicacy is a lobster's TOMALLEY (liver). Because bacteria form quickly in a dead lobster, it's important that it be alive when you buy it. To make sure, pick up the lobster — if the tail curls under the body it's alive. This test is especially important with lobsters that have been stored on ice because they're so sluggish that it's sometimes hard to see movement. Lobsters come in various sizes and are categorized as follows: jumbo, over 2 1/2 pounds; large (or select ), from 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 pounds; quarters, from 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 pounds; eighths, from 1 1/8 to 1 1/4 pounds; and chicken lobsters, which average about a pound. Lobsters must be purchased the day they're to be cooked. They will die in fresh water, so must either be kept in seawater or wrapped in a wet cloth and stored for no more than a few hours on a bed of ice in the refrigerator. All lobsters must either be cooked live or killed immediately prior to cooking. They may be cleaned before or after cooking, depending on the cooking method and the way in which they are to be used. Though whole lobsters are best simply boiled or broiled, lobster meat may be prepared in a variety of ways. Consult a general cookbook for cleaning and cooking instructions. Whole lobsters and chunk lobster meat are also sold precooked. One caveat when buying whole cooked lobster: be sure the tail is curled, a sign that it was alive when cooked. Frozen and canned cooked lobster meat, as well as raw spiny (or rock) lobster tails, are also available. See also  SHELLFISH.
lobster butter A COMPOUND BUTTER made by heating ground lobster shells together with butter. Sometimes lobster meat and CORAL are also included. The mixture is then strained into ice water, which hardens the butter. Lobster butter has a multitude of uses including flavoring sauces or soups or as a spread.
locust bean see  CAROB
loganberry There's disagreement as to the origin of this beautiful ruby red, BLACKBERRY-shaped berry. Some botanists think it's a separate species while others consider it a raspberry-blackberry hybrid. All agree that it was discovered by California Judge J. H. Logan in the late 1800s. Available in June and July, the loganberry is juicy and sweetly tart, and turns purple-red when very ripe. Choose plump, brightly colored berries that are uniform in size. Avoid soft, shriveled or moldy fruit. Do not wash until ready to use, and store (preferably in a single layer) in a moistureproof container in the refrigerator for 2 to 3 days. Loganberries are delicious both cooked and fresh. They make wonderful jams and preserves.
loin Depending on the animal, the loin comes from the area on both sides of the backbone extending from the shoulder to the leg (for pork) or from the rib to the leg (in beef, lamb and veal). Beef loin is divided into SHORT LOIN and SIRLOIN. In general, the loin is a tender cut that can be butchered into chops, steaks and roasts.
lo mein [loh MAYN] A Chinese dish of boiled noodles combined with various stir-fried ingredients, such as chicken, pork and vegetables. The cooked noodles are tossed with the hot, stir-fried ingredients at the last minute, just until they're heated through and coated with the stir-fry sauce.
London broil 1. A FLANK STEAK that has been cut into large pieces, tenderized by marinating, broiled or grilled, then thinly sliced across the grain. 2. A term also used for various thick cuts of meat including sirloin tip (see  SIRLOIN) and top round (see  ROUND).
longan [LONG-uhn] Also called dragon's eye , this native Southeast Asian fruit is small (about 1 inch in diameter) and round and has a thin brown shell. Inside is a translucent white, juicy-soft pulp that surrounds a large black seed. The perfumy flavor is delicate and sweet. Fresh longans can occasionally be found in Asian markets during July and August. They may be refrigerated in a plastic bag for up to 3 weeks. The easy-to-peel shell must be removed before eating. Dried and canned longans are available year-round. Longans are eaten as a snack and used in some Asian soups, SWEET-AND-SOUR dishes and desserts.
long bean see  YARD-LONG BEAN
longhorn cheese Named after the longhorn cow, this cheese is a mild form of CHEDDAR. It comes in cylinders and rectangles. See also  CHEESE.
Long Island duck see  DUCK
Long Island tea A potent mixed drink composed of gin, vodka, cola and lemon. It's served in a tall glass over ice. Sometimes tequila is also added to the mix.
Long John see  BISMARCK
long-neck clam see  SOFT-SHELL CLAM
looseleaf lettuce see  LEAF LETTUCE
lop chong sausage; lop cheong see  CHINESE SAUSAGE
loquat [LOH-kwaht] Though it originated in China, the loquat is also called may apple , Japanese medlar  and Japanese plum . This slightly pear-shaped fruit resembles an apricot in size and color. The juicy, crisp flesh is pale yellow and has a delicate, sweetly tart cherrylike flavor. It surrounds 1 to 3 rather large seeds. Besides China, the loquat grows in Japan, India, Central and part of South America, California, Florida and throughout the Mediterranean. Loquats bruise easily so they're not good travelers. For that reason, fresh loquats are usually found only in the regions in which they're grown. Choose large fruit with no sign of bruising. Store at room temperature or, if very ripe, refrigerate in a plastic bag. Loquats can be eaten as a snack, added to salads or used in chicken or duck dishes. They're also available dried or canned in Asian markets.
Lord Baltimore cake A three-layered yellow cake with a filling of chopped pecans or almonds, MARASCHINO cherries and MACAROON crumbs. The cake is covered with a fluffy white frosting such as BOILED ICING. See also  LADY BALTIMORE CAKE.
lotte [LOT] see  ANGLER
lotus A water lily whose leaves, root and seeds are frequently used in Asian cooking. The huge lotus leaves have a diameter of from 11 to 15 inches. They can be found fresh and dried in Asian markets. These leaves are used both as a flavoring and to wrap sweet and savory mixtures (rice, meat, fruit, etc.) for steaming. The underwater lotus root can be up to 4 feet long. It looks like a solid-link chain with 8-inch lengths, each about 3 inches in diameter. It has a reddish-brown skin that must be peeled before using. The lotus root's creamy-white flesh has the crisp texture of a raw potato and a flavor akin to fresh coconut. Besides the fresh form, it's also available canned, dried and candied. Lotus root is used as a vegetable as well as in sweet dishes. The oval, delicately flavored lotus seeds are eaten out of hand both in their fresh and dried forms. Dried lotus seeds are also candied and used in desserts and pastry fillings. They can be purchased canned or in bulk in Asian markets. The lotus is also called hasu  and RENKON.
lotus leaves see  LOTUS
lychee see  LITCHI
lyonnaise, à la [li-uh-NAYZ, lee-oh-NEHZ] A French term for "in the manner of Lyons," a city in central France known for its excellent food. It refers to dishes prepared or garnished with onions, such as pommes lyonnaise , which are sliced potatoes fried with onions.
Lyonnaise sauce A classic French sauce made with white wine, sautéed onions and DEMI-GLACE. The sauce is strained before being served with meats and sometimes poultry.
© The Residential Chef 2018