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Term Pronounciation Definition
turnover Pastry-dough circles or squares that are covered with a sweet or savory filling, then folded in half to create a pastry in the shape of a triangle or semicircle. The edges are usually pinched or crimped to prevent the filling from leaking. Turnovers may be baked or deep-fried. They can range from bite-size to about 6 inches across and can be served as appetizers, luncheon entrées or desserts.
turtle Any of several varieties of reptiles that can live in fresh water, salt water or on land and have a hard shell covering their bodies. Some turtles can grow quite large, weighing over 1,000 pounds. For culinary purposes the sea or green turtle — found in temperate marine waters — is best known. It has a smooth olive green shell and green to whitish flesh; the green flesh is considered superior. These turtles are often made into a thick turtle soup that usually includes MADEIRA or SHERRY as an ingredient. Terrapin, a small (7- to 8-inch) turtle species that inhabits fresh or brackish water, is considered by many to have the best meat. Terrapin meat is sometimes pounded and served like steak. Tortoises live on land and are considered less desirable than terrapin or sea turtles. Regardless of the species, the meat of the female is much more tender than that of the male. Conservation measures have limited the availability of this reptile, but some turtle meat can be found in East Coast markets, along the Gulf Coast and in Chinese markets in various regions. Canned and frozen turtle meat can sometimes be found in specialty food stores. See also  MOCK TURTLE SOUP.
turtle bean see  BLACK BEAN
Tuscan peppers see  PEPPERONCINI
Tybo cheese [TI-boh] Similar to a mild-flavored SAMSOE, the Danish, loaf-shaped Tybo is made from cows' milk. Its yellow rind encloses a cream-colored interior dotted with holes. Its mild taste makes it good for sandwiches, salads, sauces and a variety of cooked dishes. Some tybos are flavored with caraway seeds. See also  CHEESE.
tzimmes [TSIHM-ihs] Traditionally served on Rosh Hashana, this sweet Jewish dish consists of various combinations of fruits, meat and vegetables. Tzimmes may include brisket of beef, sweet potatoes, potatoes, FARFEL, prunes and other dried fruit, carrots or apples — all flavored with honey and often cinnamon. This casserole-style dish is cooked at very low heat so the flavors have a chance to blend.
Toulouse sausage [too-LOOZ] A small French sausage made of coarsely diced pork flavored with wine, garlic and seasonings. Toulouse sausage is usually braised or fried and makes a good addition to many dishes such as CASSOULET. See also  SAUSAGE.
tourage [too-RAHJ] A French term for the technique of making PUFF PASTRY whereby the dough is repeatedly folded into thirds, rolled out and folded into thirds again. This process creates hundreds of flaky pastry layers.
tournedo [TOOR-nih-doh, toor-nih-DOH] A beef steak cut from the TENDERLOIN, measuring 3/4 to 1 inch thick and 2 to 2 1/2 inches in diameter. Since tournedos are very lean, they're sometimes wrapped in pork fat or bacon prior to grilling or broiling. Classically, they're served on fried bread rounds and topped with a sauce, such as mushroom sauce.
trans fatty acids A type of fat created when oils are hydrogenated, which chemically transforms them from their normal liquid state (at room temperature) into solids. During the hydrogenation procedure extra hydrogen atoms are pumped into unsaturated fat, thereby creating trans fatty acids. This process converts the mixture into a saturated fat, which obliterates its polyunsaturate benefits. Trans fatty acids can be found in a wide array of processed foods including cookies and MARGARINES. Any food with "hydrogenated oils" or "partially hydrogenated oils" on the label contains trans fatty acids. Some researchers believe such foods may actually be more damaging than regular saturated fats to those watching their cholesterol, saying trans fatty acids decrease the good (HDL) cholesterol and increase the bad LDLs. Other scientists argue that the evidence is inconclusive and that trans fatty acids are no worse than butter. In either case, it would seem that "moderation" is the watchword when consuming foods containing trans fatty acids. See also  FATS AND OILS.
trash fish A term for fish that fishermen generally throw away because there's little or no commercial value. Trash fish that aren't discarded are generally used for the manufacture of chicken feed. Occasionally, trash fish make the transition from being detritus to being in demand, as in the case of lobster (long ago) and, more recently (primarily thanks to Julia Child), MONKFISH.
trasi; trassi see  SHRIMP PASTE
trassi see  BALACHAN.
tree ear see  WOOD EAR
treemelon see PEPINO
tree mushroom; tree oyster mushroom see oyster mushroom 
tree tomato see TAMARILLO
trenette [tray-NAYT-tay] A narrower, thicker version of TAGLIATELLE. See also  PASTA.
trepang see  sea cucumber 
trevally see jack 
triangle tip see ROUND, BEEF.
trifle [TRI-fuhl] Originally from England, this dessert consists of SPONGE CAKE or LADYFINGERS doused with spirits (usually SHERRY), covered with jam and custard, topped with whipped cream and garnished with candied or fresh fruit, nuts or grated chocolate. Trifle is refrigerated for several hours before serving.
tripe The tripe found in most markets today is the lining of beef stomach, though that from pork and sheep also fall under the definition. There are two beef stomach chambers and three kinds of tripe, all of which are tough and require long cooking. The best tripe, from the second stomach chamber, is called honeycomb tripe because the inner side has a pattern similiar to a honeycomb. It's the most tender and subtly flavored. Pocket tripe is cut from the end of the second stomach chamber. It's shaped like a pocket with the inside also being honeycombed. The least desirable plain or smooth tripe (with a smooth texture on both sides) comes from the first stomach. Tripe is available fresh (which is actually partially cooked by the packer) in most supermarkets. Choose tripe with a pale off-white color and store for up to a day in the refrigerator. Tripe is also available pickled and canned. The most famous French dish using this VARIETY MEAT is the Norman dish called tripes à la mode de Caen  — tripe braised with carrots, onions and cider. In Spanish-speaking countries, menudo  (tripe soup) is a well-known favorite.
triple-cream cheeses; triple-crème see  DOUBLE-CREAM CHEESES
Triple Sec [TRIH-pl-sehk] A strong, clear orange-flavored LIQUEUR very similiar to CURAÇAO. Triple Sec is used to make the mixed drink, MARGARITA.
tripolini [tree-poh-LEE-nee] Small bow tie-shaped PASTA with rounded edges.
triticale [triht-ih-KAY-lee] This extremely nutritious hybrid of wheat (Triticum ) and rye (Secale ) contains more protein and less gluten than wheat and has a nutty-sweet flavor. It comes in several forms including whole berry, flakes and flour and can be found in health-food stores. Triticale flour is also available in some supermarkets. Whole triticale can be cooked and used in a variety of dishes including cereals, casseroles, PILAF-style dishes, etc. Because triticale flour is low in gluten, bread made from it alone is quite heavy. For that reason, it's usually combined half-and-half with wheat flour.
trivet [TRIHV-iht] A short-legged (or otherwise raised) stand used to support hot dishes and protect the surface of a table.
trompette de la mort mushroom [trawn-PEHT deh lah MAWR ] French for "trumpet of death," this wild mushroom is, in fact, trumpet-shaped. Its cap is thin and gently ruffled, its color ranges from dark gray to black. The flavor of this mushroom is rich, deep and somewhat nutty. The trompette de la mort (also called black chanterelle, horn of plenty  and trumpet of death ) can be found fresh from about August to November. The dried form is often available in specialty produce markets and some supermarkets. See also  MUSHROOM.
trotters see  PIG'S FEET
trout [TROWT] A large group of fishes belonging to the same family as SALMON and WHITEFISH. Though most trout are freshwater fish, some live in marine waters. When the first European settlers arrived in North America, trout were very abundant. By the late 1860s, however, a number of factors including overfishing and pollution caused the trout population to diminish drastically. By the end of the 19th century trout hatcheries — along with other prevention and regenerative measures taken to forestall the extinction of this delicious fish — were in existence. Today trout are plentiful and vary widely in appearance and size. In general, their flesh is firm-textured with medium to high fat content. Probably the best known of the freshwater species is the rainbow trout, which, though native to California, has been transplanted to many different countries and is now one of the most popular varieties in the world. Rainbow trout can grow to up to 50 pounds, but most commercially raised fish average around 8 ounces. Brook or speckled trout are small (6 to 8 inches long) but considered by many as the best eating. Other popular species include steelhead or salmon trout (a large — up to 35 pounds — subspecies of the rainbow trout), cutthroat trout and brown trout. Saltwater trout or sea trout species, which are generally available only on the East Coast, include gray trout, silver trout, spotted trout and white trout. Trout are available whole — fresh and frozen — and in fillets. They're most often fried but can also be poached, baked, steamed, grilled and broiled. Whole trout is often stuffed before being cooked. In addition to fresh and frozen, trout can also be found canned, smoked and kippered. See also  FISH.
truffle [TRUHF-uhl, TROO-fuhl] It's hard to believe that one of the rarest and most expensive foods in the world is located by pigs and dogs. This exceptional fungus grows 3 to 12 inches underground near the roots of trees (usually oak but also chestnut, hazel and beech), never beyond the range of the branches. The difficult-to-find truffle is routed out by animals that have been specially trained for several years. Pigs have keener noses, but dogs are less inclined to gobble up the prize. Once the truffle is found, the farmer (trufficulteur ) scrapes back the earth, being careful not to touch the truffle with his hands (which will cause the fungus to rot). If the truffle isn't ripe, it's carefully reburied for future harvesting. This methodically slow and labor-intensive harvesting method is what makes truffles so extremely expensive. Truffles have been prized by gourmets for centuries and were credited by the ancient Greeks and Romans with both therapeutic and aphrodisiac powers. A truffle has a rather unappealing appearance — round and irregularly shaped with a thick, rough, wrinkled skin that varies in color from almost black to off-white. Of the almost 70 known varieties, the most desirable is the black truffle, also known as black diamond , of France's Périgord and Quercy regions and the Umbria region of Italy. Its extremely pungent flesh is black (really very dark brown) with white striations. The next most popular is the white truffle (actually off-white or beige) of Italy's Piedmont region, with its earthy, garlicky aroma and flavor. Fresh imported truffles are available from late fall to midwinter in specialty markets. Choose firm, well-shaped truffles with no sign of blemishes. Truffles should be used as soon as possible after purchase but can be stored up to 3 days in the refrigerator. To take full advantage of their perfumy fragrance, bury them in a container of rice or whole eggs and cover tightly before refrigerating. The truffle fragrance will permeate the ingredients they're stored with, giving the cook a double-flavor bonus. Brush any surface dust off the truffle and peel the dark species (saving the peelings for soups). White truffles need not be peeled. Canned truffles, truffle paste in a tube and, to a limited extent, frozen truffles are also found in specialty stores. Dark truffles are generally used to flavor cooked foods such as omelets, POLENTAS, RISOTTOS and sauces, like the famous PÉRIGUEUX. The more mildly flavored white truffles are usually served raw by grating them over foods such as pasta or cheese dishes. They're also added at the last minute to cooked dishes. A special implement called a TRUFFLE SLICER can be used to shave off paper-thin slivers and slices of truffle. Dishes flavored or garnished with truffles are often referred to as À LA PÉRIGOURDINE. See also  CHOCOLATE TRUFFLE.
truffle, chocolate [TRUHF-uhl, TROO-fuhl] A rich confection made with a mélange of melted chocolate, butter or cream, sugar and various flavorings such as liquors, liqueurs, spices, vanilla, coffee and nuts. After the mixture is cooled, it's rolled into balls and coated with various coverings such as unsweetened cocoa powder (the classic coating), chocolate sprinkles, shaved chocolate or sugar. Some truffles are dipped in melted white or dark chocolate, which, after cooling, becomes a hard coating. These confections were so named because the original, cocoa-coated and rather misshapen truffle resembled the famous and rare fungus of the same name.
truffle slicer A small kitchen device consisting of an adjustable blade mounted on a stainless-steel frame. The slicer's blade is held at a 45-degree angle and the TRUFFLE is pressed down and across it, allowing the blade to shave off small slivers and slices.
trumpet of death see  trompette de la mort 
truss To secure poultry or other food (usually meat) with string, pins or skewers so the food maintains a compact shape during cooking.
trussing needle Long stainless-steel needles threaded with twine and used to TRUSS food. They vary in size, usually somewhere from 4 to 10 inches in length.
try out see  RENDER
tsukemono [soo-keh-MOH-noh] The general name for Japanese-style pickled vegetables, which are served with practically every Japanese meal, breakfast included. There are numerous pickling techniques and a wide variety of vegetables that are pickled.
tube steak Another name for a HOT DOG.
tubetti [too-BAYT-tee] Italian for "little tubes," referring culinarily to tiny, hollow PASTA tubes.
tuile [TWEEL] French for "tile," a tuile is a thin, crisp cookie that is placed over a rounded object (like a rolling pin) while still hot from the oven. (There is also a special tuile mold, over which the hot cookies may be placed.) Once cooled and stiff, the cookie resembles a curved roof tile. The classic tuile is made with crushed almonds but the cookie can also be flavored with orange, lemon, vanilla or other nuts.
tulipe [too-LEEP] The French word for "tulip," culinarily referring to a thin cookie that is gathered into a ruffled-flower shape while still warm. The ruffled cookie is usually placed into a cup mold (such as a muffin tin) until cool. It can also be draped over an inverted water glass. The crisp cookie cup is used as an edible container for berries, MOUSSE or ice cream.
tuna [TOO-nuh] Found in temperate marine waters throughout the world, tuna is a member of the MACKEREL family. It's probably the most popular fish used for canning today. There are numerous varieties of tuna, the best known being albacore, bluefin, yellowfin and bonito. All tunas have a distinctively rich-flavored flesh that is moderate to high in fat, firmly textured, flaky and tender. The high-fat albacore weighs in the 10- to 60-pound range, has the lightest flesh (white with a hint of pink) and is the only tuna that can be called "white." Its mild flavor and prized white flesh make it the most expensive canned tuna. Yellowfin tunas (also called ahi ) are usually larger than albacores, reaching up to 300 pounds. Their flesh is pale pink (it must be called "light"), with a flavor slightly stronger than that of the albacore. Among the largest tunas are the bluefin, which can weigh over 1,000 pounds. Young bluefins have a lighter flesh and are less strongly flavored, but as they grow into adulthood, their flesh turns dark red and their flavor becomes more pronounced. The small bonitos rarely exceed 25 pounds. They range from moderate- to high-fat and are the most strongly flavored of the tunas. Many Japanese dishes use dried bonito, called KATSUOBUSHI. Skipjack tunas (also known as Arctic bonito, oceanic bonito, watermelon  and, in Hawaii, aku ) get their name because they seem to "skip" out of the water. They can weigh up to 40 pounds, but are more typi-cally ranged from 6 to 8 pounds. Skipjack flesh is similar to that of yellowfin tuna. Depending on the variety, fresh tuna is available seasonally — generally starting in late spring and continuing into early fall. Frozen tuna is available year-round and is sold in both steaks and fillets. It may be cooked by almost any method including bak-ing, broiling, grilling and frying. Canned tuna is precooked and is sold as albacore (or white meat) and light meat. It comes in three grades, the best being solid  or fancy  (large pieces), followed by chunk  (smaller pieces) and flaked  or grated  (bits and pieces). Canned tuna is packed in either water or oil — the latter containing far more calories. See also  FISH.
turban squash This family of winter squashes all have hard bumpy shells and turbanlike formations at the blossom end. BUTTERCUP SQUASH is one of the more popular varieties. Turban squashes come in a variety of sizes ranging from 2 to 15 inches in diameter at the base. Because they're quite colorful, with varying bright hues of orange, green and yellow, turban squashes are often used for decoration rather than eating. They can be baked, steamed or simmered. See also  SQUASH.
turbinado sugar [tur-bih-NAH-doh] see  SUGAR
tureen [too-REEN, tyoo-REEN] Any of various deep, lidded dishes used for the table service of soups, stews and the like.
turkey For most families, Thanksgiving dinner would be unthinkable without this large native-American bird on the table. Long before the arrival of European settlers, wild turkeys populated the United States, Mexico and Central America and the Aztecs were busily domesticating them. The conquistadores  took some of these domesticated birds back to Spain, and before long Europeans were breeding them into a much plumper version. Interestingly enough, European settlers brought some of these domesticated birds back to the New World in the 1600s and eventually began crossing them with America's wild turkeys. Most U.S. turkeys raised today are from the White Holland variety, which has been bred to produce a maximum of white meat (a U.S. favorite). In fact, the breasts of today's turkeys are so massive that they must rely on artificial insemination because they can't get close enough to mate. Although male (tom ) turkeys can reach 70 pounds, those over 20 pounds are becoming less and less available. The female (hen ) turkey usually weighs from 8 to 16 pounds. Gaining in popularity is a smaller version of both sexes (sometimes called a fryer-roaster ), which weighs in at between 5 and 8 pounds. The trend toward these compact turkeys is the result of both smaller families and the desire of turkey producers to make turkey everyday rather than exclusively holiday fare. Turkeys are available fresh and frozen year-round. They're sold both whole and as separate parts — such as breasts or drumsticks. Some whole turkeys have had a built-in plastic thermometer implanted that pops up when the turkey is done. Self-basting turkeys have been injected with butter or vegetable oil. Smoked turkey — whole or breast — is also available, as is canned boned turkey. Turkey is very similar to chicken in many regards, including USDA grading. See  CHICKEN for information regarding purchasing, storing and preparing turkey. 
Turkish coffee Very strong coffee made by bringing finely ground coffee (and sometimes spices like CARDAMOM, CINNAMON or NUTMEG), sugar and water to a boil three times, allowing it to cool very briefly between boilings. Turkish coffee is made in a special long-handled, open, brass or copper pot called a jezve  or ibrik  and served in tiny cups immediately after the third boil. The bubbly froth that forms on the coffee's surface is said to be a sign of good fortune for anyone who gets some in their cup. Allow a few moments after Turkish coffee is poured to let the grounds settle. See also  COFFEE.
Turkish delight Called rahat loukoum  ("rest for the throat") in Turkey, this rubbery-textured candy is extremely popular throughout the Middle East. It's made from CORNSTARCH or GELATIN, sugar, honey and fruit juice or jelly, and is often tinted pink or green. Chopped almonds, pistachio nuts, pine nuts or hazelnuts are frequently added. Once the candy becomes firm, it is cut into small squares and coated with confectioners' sugar. Turkish delight is available commercially in candy shops and some supermarkets.
turmeric [TER-muh-rihk] Used in cooking since 600 b.c., turmeric is the root of a tropical plant related to GINGER. Though native to the Orient, this spice is now also cultivated in India and the Caribbean. It has a bitter, pungent flavor and an intense yellow-orange color. In Biblical times, turmeric was often used to make perfume, a comment on its rather exotic fragrance. Today it's used mainly to add both flavor and color to food. Turmeric is very popular in East Indian cooking and is almost always used in CURRY preparations. It's also a primary ingredient in MUSTARD and is what gives American-style prepared mustard its bright yellow color. Powdered turmeric is widely available in supermarkets. As with all spices, it should be stored in a cool, dark place for no more than 6 months. See also  SPICES; HERB AND SPICE CHART.
turner A utensil for lifting or removing food from a pan or baking sheet, or for turning food that's being cooked so the second side can brown. Such foods include pancakes, bacon, ham, hamburgers, fish, potatoes, eggs and cookies. Turners come in a variety of shapes and designs in order to conveniently meet different cooking tasks. Some turners have holes or slots to allow liquids or fats to drain off the item being lifted. Others are shaped for special uses — like the Chinese turner, which has curved edges to fit WOK contours. Turners are usually made of nylon (so as not to scratch NONSTICK FINISHES) or stainless steel. See also  SPATULA.
turnip Not only is this root vegetable easy to grow, but it keeps well, too. Because of this, turnips have long been popular in Great Britain and northern Europe. The white-fleshed turnip has a white skin with a purple-tinged top. The so-called yellow turnip is actually a turnip relative, the RUTABAGA. Small, young turnips have a delicate, slightly sweet taste. As they age, however, their taste becomes stronger and their texture coarser, sometimes almost woody. Fresh turnips are available year-round, with the peak season from October through February. Choose heavy-for-their-size small turnips, as they are the youngsters and will be more delicately flavored and textured. The roots should be firm and the greens (if attached) bright-colored and fresh-looking. Though turnips can be refrigerated, tightly wrapped, for 2 weeks, they do best in a cool (55°F), well-ventilated area such as a root cellar. Before using, they should be washed, trimmed and peeled. Turnips may be boiled or steamed, then mashed or pureed. They can also be stir-fried, cubed and tossed with butter, or used raw in salads. Turnips, a CRUCIFEROUS vegetable, are a fair source of vitamin C. See also  TURNIP GREENS.
turnip greens Long a popular SOUL FOOD, turnip greens are slightly sweet when young but, as with aging TURNIPS, can become quite tough and strong-tasting as they age. Fresh greens are available year-round, with the peak season from October through February. Choose those that are crisp-looking with a good even color. Avoid greens that are wilted or off-colored. Refrigerate in a plastic bag for up to 3 days. Thoroughly wash and remove any thick ribs before preparing. Turnip greens may be cooked in a variety of ways including boiling, sautéing, steaming and stir-frying. They can be served alone as a vegetable or cooked and served with other greens. Canned and frozen turnip greens are also available in some regions. Turnip greens are an excellent source of vitamins A and C and a good source of riboflavin, calcium and iron.
turnip-rooted parsley see  PARSLEY ROOT
taco [tah-KOH] A Mexican-style "sandwich" consisting of a folded corn TORTILLA filled with various ingredients such as beef, pork, chicken, CHORIZO sausage, tomatoes, lettuce, cheese, onion, GUACAMOLE, REFRIED BEANS and SALSA. Most tacos in the United States are made with crisp (fried) tortilla shells, but there are also "soft" (pliable) versions. The latter are more likely to be found in the Southwest and California. Tacos may be eaten as an entrée or snack.
taffy [TAF-fee] Soft and chewy, taffy is a candy made with sugar, butter and various flavorings. Its delectable, supple consistency is achieved by twisting and pulling the candy as it cools into long, pliable strands, which are then usually cut into bite-size chunks. The famous saltwater taffy, made popular in the late 1800s in Atlantic City, was so named because it used a small amount of salt water in the mixture. Today's saltwater taffy doesn't necessarily follow tradition. The British version of taffy, called TOFFEE or toffy, is harder than America's version.
tagliatelle [tah-lyuh-TEHL-ee] Long, thin, flat strips of PASTA about 1/4 inch wide. "Tagliatelle" is the name used in northern Italy for FETTUCCINE.
tahini [tah-HEE-nee] Used in Middle Eastern cooking, tahini is a thick paste made of ground SESAME SEED. It's used to flavor various dishes such as HUMMUS and BABA GHANOUSH.
tajine see  TAGINE
Taleggio cheese [tahl-EH-zhee-oh] Hailing from Italy's Lombardy region, this rich (48 percent fat), semisoft cheese is made from whole cow's milk. Its flavor can range from mild to pungent, depending on its age. When young, Taleggio's color is pale yellow and its texture semisoft. As it ages it darkens to deep yellow and becomes rather runny. Taleggio is sold in flat blocks or cylinders and is covered either with a wax coating or a thin mold. It's excellent with salad greens or served with fruit for dessert. See also  CHEESE.
tamale [tuh-MAH-lee] From the Nahuatl  word (tamalii ), the tamale is a popular Mexican dish that consists of various fillings (such as finely chopped meat and vegetables) coated with a MASA dough and wrapped in a softened CORN HUSK. This package is then tied and steamed until the dough is cooked through. The corn husk is peeled back before the tamale is eaten. Although savory tamales are the most popular in the United States, many cooks in Mexico also serve sweet tamales, usually filled with fruit.
tamale pie A dish made with the ingredients of a regular TAMALE (cornmeal batter, ground meat, cheese and seasonings), except the ingredients are layered and baked in a dish instead of wrapped in a CORN HUSK.
tamarillo [tam-uh-RIHL-oh, tam-uh-REE-oh] Native to South America, this egg-shaped fruit is also known as a tree tomato . Although not yet widely accepted in the United States, the tamarillo is very popular in South and Central America, the Caribbean, and parts of Asia, New Zealand (from where most of the fruit in the United States is imported) and Australia. The tamarillo has a tough, bitter skin that can be various glossy shades of red, purple, amber or yellow. The tart but very flavorful golden pink flesh is purple-tinged around the seeds. Tamarillos are available from May through October in specialty produce stores and some supermarkets. Choose firm, blemish-free fruit that's heavy for its size. When ripe, tamarillos should be fragrant and should yield slightly to palm pressure. They can be ripened at room temperature. Once ripe, they should be refrigerated, tightly wrapped in a plastic bag, up to 10 days. Tamarillos can be eaten fresh or cooked, and are used for both sweet and savory dishes. One requisite, however, is sugar, which reduces the fruit's natural tartness and enhances its flavor. Tamarillos are a good source of vitamins A and C.
tamis [TAM-ee, tam-EE, TAM-ihs] Also called tammycloth,  a tamis is a worsted-cloth STRAINER used to strain liquid mixtures such as sauces.
tandoori coloring; tandoori paste [tahn-DOOR-ee] Available in Indian markets, this coloring is used to give foods the traditional red-orange tint of TANDOOR OVEN cooking. Tandoori paste can be rubbed directly onto the surface of meats; the powder is generally stirred into a MARINADE.
tandoor oven; tandoori [tahn-DOOR, tahn-DOOR-ee] Used throughout India (and found in Indian restaurants throughout the world), the traditional rounded-top tandoor oven is made of brick and clay. It's used to bake foods over direct heat produced from a smoky fire. The dough for the delicious Indian bread NAAN is slapped directly onto the oven's clay walls and left to bake until puffy and lightly browned. Meats cooked in the tall, rather cylindrical tandoor are usually skewered and thrust into the oven's heat, which is so intense (usually over 500°F) that it cooks a chicken half in less than 5 minutes. Chicken and other meats cooked with this method are identified as tandoori chicken , etc.
tangerine [tan-juh-REEN] see  MANDARIN ORANGE
tannin [TAN-ihn] An astringent substance found in the seeds and stems of grapes, the bark of some trees and in tea. Tannin is important in the making of good red wines, aiding them in long and graceful aging. When such wines are young, the tannin often gives them a noticeable astringency — a quality that diminishes as the wine ages, mellows and develops character.
tapenade [TA-puh-nahd, ta-pen-AHD] Hailing from France's Provence region, tapenade is a thick paste made from capers, anchovies, ripe olives, olive oil, lemon juice, seasonings and sometimes small pieces of tuna. It's used as a CONDIMENT and served with CRUDITÉS, fish, meat, etc.
taramasalata [tah-rah-mah-sah-LAH-tah] This Greek specialty is a thick, creamy mixture made with tarama  (pale orange carp ROE), lemon juice, milk-soaked bread crumbs, olive oil and seasonings. Taramasalata  is usually served with bread or crackers as an HORS D'OEUVRE. It may also be used as a dip for CRUDITÉS.
tarragon [TEHR-uh-gon, TEHR-uh-guhn] Narrow, pointed, dark green leaves distinguish this perennial aromatic herb known for its distinctive aniselike flavor. Tarragon is widely used in classic French cooking for a variety of dishes including chicken, fish and vegetables, as well as many sauces, the best known being BÉARNAISE. It's also an integral ingredient in various herbal combinations such as FINES HERBES. Tarragon is available fresh in the summer and early fall and year-round in dried and powdered forms. Care should be taken when using tarragon since its assertiveness can easily dominate other flavors. Tarragon vinegar is a popular item in gourmet markets. See also  HERBS; HERB AND SPICE CHART; A FIELD GUIDE TO HERBS.
tartare, beef see  BEEF TARTARE
Tartarian cherry; black Tartarian cherry [tar-TAIR-ee-uhn] Large and heart-shaped, the Tartarian cherry has a dark purple, almost black, skin and flesh. Inside the thin skin the flesh is sweet, juicy and extremely flavorful. The Tartarian cherry is available from May to September. See also  CHERRY.
tartaric acid [tahr-TAR-ihk, tahr-TAHR-ihk] A natural crystalline compound found in plants, especially those with tart characteristics such as TAMARIND and unripe grapes. The principal acid in wine, tartaric acid is the component that promotes graceful aging and crispness of flavor. One of the by-products of tartaric acid is CREAM OF TARTAR, which is used in baking and candy-making.
tartar sauce; tartare sauce [TAHR-tuhr] Based on MAYONNAISE, tartar sauce is a mixture of minced capers, dill pickles, onions or shallots, olives, lemon juice or vinegar and seasonings. It's traditionally served with fried fish, but can also be used with vegetables.
tarte Tatin [tart tah-TAN ] A famous French upside-down apple TART made by covering the bottom of a shallow baking dish with butter and sugar, then apples and finally a pastry crust. While baking, the sugar and butter create a delicious CARAMEL that becomes the topping when the tart is inverted onto a serving plate. The tart was created by two French sisters who lived in the Loire Valley and earned their living making it. The French call this dessert tarte des demoiselles Tatin , "the tart of two unmarried women named Tatin."
torta [TOHR-tuh] 1. The Italian word for "tart," "pie" or "cake." 2. The Spanish word for "cake," "loaf" or "sandwich."
torte [TOHRT] A rich cake, often made with little or no flour but instead with ground nuts or bread crumbs, eggs, sugar and flavorings. Tortes are often multilayered and filled with BUTTERCREAM, jams, etc.
tortellini; tortelloni [tohr-tl-EE-nee, tohr-tl-OH-nee] Small PASTA stuffed with various fillings, folded over and shaped into a ring or hat shape. Tortelloni are a larger version.
tortoise [TOHR-tuhs] see  TURTLE
tortoni [tohr-TOH-nee] Hailing from Italy, this rich frozen dessert consists of sweetened whipped cream (sometimes ice cream) flavored with spirits such as SHERRY or RUM and combined or topped with chopped almonds or MACAROON crumbs. This dessert is often called biscuit tortoni , especially when served in small paper cups.
toss, to To turn pieces of food over multiple times, thereby mixing the ingredients together. The term is most often applied to salad, where various ingredients and the salad dressing are tossed together, mixing the ingredients and coating them with the dressing.
tostada [toh-STAH-duh] A crisp-fried TORTILLA (corn or flour) topped with various ingredients such as REFRIED BEANS, shredded chicken or beef, shredded lettuce, diced tomatoes, grated cheese, sour cream or GUACAMOLE. Tostadas can be large or small and served as an appetizer or entrée.
tastevin [taht-VAHN , , tahst-VAHN ] A wine-tasting cup, usually worn on a chain or ribbon around the neck of a SOMMELIER.
tawny port [TAW-nee] see  PORT
T-bone steak Cut from the center of the SHORT LOIN, this steak has a T-shaped bone that separates the small tenderloin section from the larger top loin. The porterhouse steak differs from the T-bone in that it contains a larger portion of the tenderloin. See also  BEEF.
tea egg A Chinese specialty prepared by hard-cooking eggs, crushing (but not peeling) the shells, then simmering the eggs in strong tea for about an hour. The tea seeps through the cracked shell, thereby flavoring the egg and giving it a marbleized appearance. Tea eggs are usually served as an appetizer.
tea infuser A small, perforated, basketlike container with a hinged opening. Loose tea is placed inside the infuser, which is then closed and lowered into a teapot, whereupon boiling water is added (see  INFUSION). The tiny holes in the infuser allow the water to interact with the tea leaves. A tiny chain with a hook at one end is attached to the top of the infuser — the hook slips over the rim of the teapot so the infuser can easily be retrieved, thereby straining the tea leaves. There are also single-cup infusers, which are shaped like two perforated teaspoons that fasten together. Tea infusers are usually made of stainless or chromed steel, although there are also porcelain and silver models. See also  HIGH TEA; TEA.
tejolete [teh-hoh-LOH-teh] see  MOLCAJETE Y TEJOLETE
tempe; tempeh [TEHM-pay] A fermented SOYBEAN cake, with a texture similar to that of soft TOFU and a yeasty, nutty flavor. The high-protein tempe is popular in Asian cooking, as well as for VEGETARIAN diets. It's commonly available at health-food stores.
temple orange This loose-skinned orange is somewhat oval in shape and has a rough, thick, deep orange skin. Thought to be a cross between a TANGERINE and an orange, the temple has a sweetly tart flesh and a goodly number of seeds. It's in season from December to March. See also  ORANGE.
Tencha tea Considered one of the finest of the green teas, Tencha hails from Japan and is commonly used for tea ceremonies. See also  TEA.
tenderizer see  MEAT TENDERIZERS
tendon [tehn-DOHN] A type of DONBURI dish consisting of TEMPURA-fried shrimp and a DASHI-based broth served over boiled rice.
tequila [tuh-KEE-luh] A colorless or pale straw-colored liquor made by fermenting and distilling the sweet sap of the AGAVE plant. It originated in Tequila, Mexico, hence the name. Most tequilas imported to the United States range from 80 to 86 PROOF, although some versions are over 100 proof. Tequila is the base liquor in the popular MARGARITA cocktail.
teriyaki [tehr-uh-YAH-kee, tehr-ee-YAK-kee] n.  1. A Japanese dish consisting of food, such as beef or chicken, that has been marinated in a mixture of soy sauce, SAKE (or SHERRY), sugar, ginger and seasonings before being grilled, broiled or fried. The sugar in the marinade gives the cooked food a slight glaze. 2. A homemade or commercially prepared sauce made with the above ingredients. teriyaki adj.  A phrase describing food cooked in this manner, as in "chicken teriyaki."
terrapin [TEHR-uh-pihn] see  TURTLE
Téte de Moine [teht deh MWAHN] see  BELLELAY
Tetrazzini [teh-trah-ZEE-nee] see  CHICKEN TETRAZZINI
Texmati rice An AROMATIC RICE that's a cross between American long-grain rice and BASMATI. It has more flavor and fragrance than its American parent and less than basmati. Texmati comes in both white and brown versions, with the brown having a nuttier nuance than the white. See also  RICE.
Tex-Mex [TEHKS-mehks] A term given to food (as well as music, etc.) based on the combined cultures of Texas and Mexico. Tex-Mex food encompasses a wide variety of dishes such as BURRITOS, NACHOS and TACOS.
Thai chile [TI] Only about 1 to 1 1/2 inches long and 1/4 inch in diameter, this diminutive chile packs a fiery punch that doesn't dissipate with cooking. The thin-fleshed Thai chile ranges in color from green to red when fully ripe. It's a popular addition in many Southeast Asian dishes. See also  CHILE.
Thai chile [TI] Only about 1 to 1 1/2 inches long and 1/4 inch in diameter, this diminutive chile packs a fiery punch that doesn't dissipate with cooking. The thin-fleshed Thai chile ranges in color from green to red when fully ripe. It's a popular addition in many Southeast Asian dishes. See also  CHILE.
Thai coffee [TI] Coffee mixed with SWEETENED CONDENSED MILK. See also  COFFEE.
Thai ginger [TI] see  GALANGAL
Thermidor [THER-mih-dohr] see  LOBSTER THERMIDOR
thimbleberry [THIHM-buhl-bair-ee] Any of several thimble-shaped American raspberries, especially the black raspberry. See also  RASPBERRY.
thin v.  To dilute mixtures such as soups, sauces, batters, etc., by adding more liquid.
Thousand Island dressing A MAYONNAISE-based salad dressing made with CHILI SAUCE and finely chopped ingredients such as stuffed green olives, green peppers, pickles, onions and hard-cooked egg. Thousand Island dressing is also sometimes used as a sandwich spread.
thousand-year egg see  HUNDRED-YEAR EGG
Thuringer sausage [THOOR-ihn-juhr, TOOR-ihn-juhr] Any of several fresh and smoked sausages named for the former German region of Thuringia. Thuringers include some CERVELATS and BLOOD SAUSAGES. The spice CORIANDER is integral to many of these sausages. See also  SAUSAGE.
Tía Maria [tee-uh muh-REE-uh] Based on RUM, this dark brown Jamaican LIQUEUR has a strong coffee flavor.
tiger lily buds Also called golden needles  and simply lily buds , the dried golden buds of the tiger lily are 2 to 3 inches long and have a delicate, musky-sweet flavor. They're used both as vegetable and garnish in various STIR-FRIED dishes. The delicate tiger lily buds are available in 4- to 8-ounce cellophane bags in Asian markets. They must be soaked in water prior to using.
tiger nuts see  CHUFA
ti leaves [TEE] The leaves of a member of the AGAVE family, used in Polynesia to wrap foods to be cooked. The leaves are removed before the food is eaten. Dried ti leaves, which can be found in some ethnic markets, must be soaked to soften before using. A Hawaiian liquor called OKOLEHAO is made from a mash of the ti plant.
Tillamook cheese [TIHL-uh-mook] A yellow CHEDDAR produced in and around the area of Tillamook, Oregon. It is made from raw milk and ranges from mild to sharp in flavor. Aged Tillamook cheese is highly prized but seldom seen anywhere but the West Coast. See also  CHEESE.
Tilsit cheese [TIHL-ziht] A cheese said to have orginated in Tilsit, East Prussia (now part of Russia and Poland), when Dutch immigrants accidentally created it while attempting to make GOUDA. Tilsit has a medium-firm texture with irregular eyes or cracks. Commercially produced Tilsit is made from pasteurized milk, ranges from 30 to 50 percent milk fat and has a pale yellow interior surrounded by a dark yellow rind. Its flavor is mild but becomes more pungent with age. A very strong version, called Farmhouse Tilsit, is made from raw milk and is aged for about 5 months, which creates a cheese approaching LIMBURGER in aroma. Tilsit is used to flavor foods such as sauces and vegetable dishes. See also  CHEESE.
timbale [TIHM-buhl, tihm-BAHL] 1. A mold, generally high-sided, drum-shaped and slightly tapered at the bottom and closed end, used to bake various dishes. 2. A dish — usually based on custard, FORCEMEAT or RISOTTO combined with meat, fish, vegetables, cheese, etc. — baked in such a mold. The dish is unmolded and often served as an entrée (and sometimes as a first course) with a sauce such as BÉCHAMEL. 3. A pastry shell made by dipping a timbale iron first into a batter, then into deep, hot fat. When the crisp pastry is pushed off the iron and cooled, it can be filled with a sweet or savory mixture. Timbale irons come in various sizes and shapes such as hearts, stars and butterflies. They're available in specialty cookware stores.
tipsy parson; tipsy pudding Similar to TRIFLE, this old-fashioned English dessert consists of several layers of SPONGE CAKE soaked with wine or BRANDY, sprinkled with almonds and layered with whipped cream or custard. It was thought that too much of this would make one tipsy.
tisane [tih-ZAN, tih-ZAHN] Commonly called herb tea , a tisane is a tealike drink made by steeping any of various herbs, flowers, spices, etc. in boiling water. Such brews have long been used for their calming and rejuvenating qualities. Some of the herbs more commonly used for tisane blends are balm, chamomile, hyssop, mint and tansy. Tisanes can be found in health-food stores, often under the label "herb tea."
toad-in-the-hole This comically named British dish consists of a YORKSHIRE PUDDING batter to which small cooked link sausages are added. The dish is baked until the batter puffs up around the sausages (making them the "toads in the hole") and becomes golden brown. It's most often served for lunch or dinner.
toffee; toffy [TAWF-ee] A hard but chewy candy made by cooking sugar, water (or cream) and usually butter. Depending on the recipe, a toffee mixture may be cooked to anywhere from 260° to 310°F on a CANDY THERMOMETER. Other ingredients such as nuts or chocolate are sometimes added.
Tokay grape; Tokay wine [toh-KAY] 1. A large, oval California table grape (also called Flame Tokay ) with a thick red skin and bland-tasting flesh with seeds. Tokays are available from August through December. They're also sometimes used to make wine of the same name. 2. Tokay is also a sweet white wine from Hungary's Tokay region, which is made primarily from the Furmint grape. BOTRYTIS CINEREA-infected grapes from the better vintages produce marvelous DESSERT WINES that rival the best from France and Germany.
Toll House cookie This — the original chocolate-chip cookie — was created in the 1930s by Ruth Wakefield, who ran the Toll House Restaurant outside of Whitman, Massachusetts. Mrs. Wakefield, in a moment of brilliant inspiration, cut up bars of chocolate to add to a basic butter-cookie dough. History was made. Today, the chocolate-chip cookie is the most popular in the United States.
tomalley [TOM-al-ee, toh-MAL-ee] Considered a delicacy, tomalley is the green-colored liver of a LOBSTER. It may be eaten alone but is often also added to sauces.
tomatillo [tohm-ah-TEE-oh] This fruit, which is also called Mexican green tomato,  belongs to the same nightshade family as the tomato. In fact, it resembles a small green tomato in size, shape and appearance except for the fact that it has a thin parchmentlike covering. The papery husk is a clue to the fact that the tomatillo is also related to the CAPE GOOSEBERRY. Although tomatillos can ripen to yellow, they are generally used while still green and quite firm. Their flavor has hints of lemon, apple and herbs. Tomatillos are available sporadically year-round in specialty produce stores, Latin American markets and some supermarkets. Choose firm fruit with dry, tight-fitting husks. Store in a paper bag in the refrigerator for up to a month. Remove husk and wash fruit before using. Cooking enhances the tomatillo's flavor and softens its thick skin. Tomatillos are popular in Mexican and Southwest cooking for use in a variety of dishes including GUACAMOLE and many sauces. They can be used raw in salads and SALSAS for a more acidic taste. Canned tomatillos are available in ethnic markets. Tomatillos are rich in vitamin A and contain a good amount of vitamin C. The tomatillo is also called jamberry. 
tomato paste see  TOMATO
tomato puree see  TOMATO
tomato sauce see  TOMATO
tombo [TOHM-boh] The Hawaiian name for albacore TUNA.
tongue sausage Available in large or small links, tongue sausage is made from TONGUE and various other meats. It often contains PISTACHIO NUTS. See also  SAUSAGE.
tonic water [TAHN-ik] Also called quinine water , tonic is water charged with carbon dioxide and flavored with fruit EXTRACTS, sugar and usually a tiny amount of QUININE (a bitter alkaloid). It's especially popular as a mixer, such as with gin to create the gin and tonic COCKTAIL.
tonic water [TAHN-ik] Also called quinine water , tonic is water charged with carbon dioxide and flavored with fruit EXTRACTS, sugar and usually a tiny amount of QUININE (a bitter alkaloid). It's especially popular as a mixer, such as with gin to create the gin and tonic COCKTAIL.
tonnato [tohn-NAH-toh] From the Italian tonno  ("tuna"), the word tonnato  refers culinarily to dishes that are somehow prepared with or accompanied by tuna. The most well known preparation is vitello tonnato,  which consists of cold, sliced, roasted veal accompanied with a sauce of pureed tuna, anchovy filets, capers, lemon juice and olive oil.
top loin see  SHORT LOIN
top round see  ROUND
© The Residential Chef 2019